English translation of Maktubat Imam Rabbani (selective 100) | Mujaddid Alf sani | Sheikh Ahmad sirhindi
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This letter was written to Mirza Ubaidullah by Muhammad Mathum. It notes down the necessity of advice and the importance of jihad.
Some people suppose that Tasawwuf means to care for one's own business, not to interfere with others and not to deal with anybody. This is not true. This kind of thinking causes the religion to be wounded. I wonder whom he remembers, when he talks like this about men of tasawwuf and sufis? If he means the great men who were attached to Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddiq 'radi-Allahu anh', (we would give the answer that) it is written in their books that the way of these great people was to cling to the Sunnat-i saniyya [the Shariat] and to abstain from bidats. But, Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar and Bughd-i fillah and Jihad-i fisabilillah are the sunnats of our Prophet; that is, they are of the fards and wajibs of the Shariat. ['Bughd-i fillah' means 'to feel hostility (towards disbelievers) for Allah's sake,' and 'Jihad-i fisabilillah' means 'to struggle for Allah's sake.' We have explained Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar before]. Then, to abandon Amr-i maruf means to abandon the way of those great people. As a matter of fact, Imam-i Muhammad Bahaaddin-i Bukhari 'quddisa sirruh', who was one of them, said, "Our way is to cling to the Urwa-i wusqa, that is, to follow the way of Rasulullah and of his Ashab." For this reason, an insignificant deed on this way gives birth to a great profit. He who abandons this way falls into great dangers. If tasawwuf meant that you abandon Amr-i maruf, Muhammad Bahaaddin-i Bukhari 'quddisa sirruh' who was one of the chiefs of tasawwuf, would not have performed Amr-i maruf to his own master, Sayyid Amir Kulal. While it was incompatible with manners to warn his master, he still did Amr-i maruf. Gathering the savants of Bukhara, he proved in the presence of them all that it was not acceptable in the Shariat to repeat Allahu ta'ala's name loudly, thus explaining to his master the importance of stopping it. Being very pious and in love with a true word, his master admitted it and stopped doing it. Men of tasawwuf wrote thousands of books in order to communicate the things that will cause men to attain salvation and those things which will draw them to annihilation. What are these works of theirs, if not Amr-i maruf? Khwaja Muiniddin-i Chashti, one of the great men of tasawwuf, was told by his master, "The darling's way is very subtle and dangerous. Advise everybody and inform them of the danger!" Why did Shaikh-i-Akbar Muhyiddin-i Arabi 'quddisa sirruh' prohibit the sufis in his time from playing music and dancing, while it was he who spread Wahdat-i wujud [Not to know that creatures also exist. To know that only the Creator exists, who is one, and that creatures are His various reflections.] all over the world? Some of them obeyed him and stopped doing so. And others did not obey him and did not stop it. But eventually they confessed their fault. [It is written in the book Hadiqa and also Akhi Chalabi writes in this book Hadiyya, "It is fard to do Amr-i maruf. But it is necessary not to do Amr-i maruf if it will result in instigation or events disliked by the religion."]
Gaws-i Samadani Sayyid Abdulqadir-i Geilani performs Amr-i maruf in detail in his book Gunyat-ut-talibin. He says, "It is permissible for a person to prevent a sinner from sinning when it is probable that he will be harmed. Yes, it is, as far as we are concerned. In fact, it is very valuable. He will be rewarded as if he warred against disbelievers for Allah's sake. Especially if it is intended to rescue the victims from the oppression of cruel authorities or to spread iman when disbelief invades one's country. Savants advise to perform Amr-i maruf at such times." If great ones among the Awliya and the leaders of sufis had neglected Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar, would they have written these in heir books or paid that much attention to them? Hadrat Abdulqadir-i Geilani says: "Things that are compatible with the Qur'an, hadiths and reason are called 'Maruf', and things that are incompatible with them are called 'Munkar.' [The book Hadiqa, while explaining the disasters incurred by the tongue, says, "Things that are prohibited by the Qur'an and hadiths and by the unanimity of Mujtahids are called 'Munkar'."] Each of them is of two types. The marufs and munkars of the first type are obvious; savants and those who are not savants know them. It is Maruf, that is fard to perform namaz five times each day, to fast in the month of Ramadan, to give zakat, to go on a pilgrimage (hajj) and things of this type; and it is Munkar, that is haram to commit adultery, to drink alcohol, to steal, to pick somebody's pocket, to charge or pay interest when lending or borrowing money, to snatch away others' property and things of this type. Every Muslim has to command or prohibit these things. The second type is known only by savants, such as kinds of facts to be believed in concerning Allahu ta'ala and how to believe them. Muslim savants command and prohibit things of this type. If a savant has communicated them, those who are not savants may communicate them, too, if they can. The munkars of the second type comprise mostly aberrations pertaining to iman and creed. Every Muslim should cling to the Ahl as-sunnat creed, and abstain from aberrant belief, that is, from deviation and from bidat in creed. One who is not learned in religious knowledge should not dispute with performers of bidat, but the should keep away from them and should not greet them. He should not visit them on religious feasts, at times of happiness, should not perform namaz in their funerals, and nor should he pity them. Since their creed is corrupt, he should deem it as an act of worship not to like them. Rasulullah 'sall-Allahu alaihi wa sallam' declared in a hadith, "If a person looks at another person harshly for Allah's sake because there is bidat or aberration in his iman or worship, Allahu ta'ala will fill his heart with iman and will protect him against fear."
[It is written in the book Kanz-i mahfi, "It is prohibited to live in places where ignorance and immorality, that is bidat and sinful activities have increased. Those who migrate in order to maintain their din (religion) will be rewarded with Paradise. It is wajib to migrate from one quarter where there are no pious and wise people and where bidat and intrigues are on the increase, to another quarter, or from such a city to another city. If Muslims in all cities are attacked, they should migrate to another Islamic country. If there are no Islamic countries, you should migrate to a kafir country where human rights are respected and worshipping is free and live there. Please see the thirty-eighth chapter in the second part of (Turkish) Se'adet-i ebediyye! This is because those who live among them will be subjected to the same catastrophe which is expected to befall them. The twenty-fifth ayat of Sura Anfal declares: "And fear an affliction which may not only smite those of you who do what is wrong."]
Fudayl bin Iyad, one of the great men of tasawwuf says, "Allahu ta'ala does not accept the worships of those who love the people who commit bidat in their words and deeds, and He takes their iman away from their hearts. Even if he who dislikes the performer of bidat prays a little, I hope that Allahu ta'ala will forgive him. If you meet a performer of bidat on your way, change your way." Again, he says, "I have heard Sufyan bin Uyayna say that Allahu ta'ala becomes angry with the person who attends the funeral of a performer of bidat until he leaves the funeral." Our Prophet declared, "If a person makes up a bidat or commits a bidat, may Allahu ta'ala and angels and all people curse him! Neither the fard nor the supererogatory worships he performs will be accepted." Abdulqadir-i Geilani's words are concluded here.
If the way of the great sufis were to not interfere with anybody, one of them would not have said, "When the Niqar, that is, performing Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar, among the sufis stops, they are no longer of any use." Shaikh-ul-Islam-i Hirawi Abdullah Ansari said that Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar were called Niqar among the sufis. [It is written in Nafahat, while telling about the life of Abu Said-i Kharraz, that the one who said, "when the niqar stops," was Abul-Hasan Ali bin Muhammad Muzayyan.] Those who slander the great sufis by saying that they did not interfere with anybody, do they not think why the Qur'an and hadiths are full of descriptions describing the rewards and torments in the next world? Will not the person who believes in the vehement torments that are said to be prepared for the sinners want to save his Muslim brother from this danger? If there is a well or a fire in front of a blind man, or if a person is about to fall into another worldly danger, they will certainly let him know of it and show him the way to safety. They will not leave him alone. Then, why shouldn't they let him know of the torment in the next world, which is more dismal and more impetuous and endless, and show him the way to salvation? It means that he who does not let others know or show them their mistakes does not admit or believe in the torment in the next world, and does not have iman in the day of the Last Judgement.
If Allahu ta'ala did not want to interfere with anybody, He would not have sent prophets, He would not have declared the Shariats, He would not have invited people to the Islamic religion, and He would not have let us know that the other religions were wrong and aberrant, nor would He have annihilated those who disbelieved the earlier prophets by tormenting them. He could have left everybody free and alone; He could have not commanded anybody to do anything, nor would He have tormented those who disbelieved Him. Why did Allahu ta'ala order Muslims [that is, the Islamic state] to perform jihad against disbelievers [those who prevent people from hearing about Islam and becoming Muslims]. Whereas, in jihad there is torment and death not only for disbelievers, but also for Muslims. For what reason were the virtues and blessings of jihad for those who perform jihad and for martyrs declared in the Qur'an and hadiths? Why was it commanded to attack evil people, to harass them, and to destroy those creatures of Allah's? As a matter of fact, He also commands man to feel hostility towards his own nafs, and explains that the nafs is at odds with Allahu ta'ala [see article 30]. To perform jihad against the nafs was called the Jihad-i Akbar (the greatest jihad). Why did Allahu ta'ala associate his approval and appreciation to this jihad? Why didn't Allahu ta'ala leave the nafs alone? It means that it is Allah's enemy. Allahu ta'ala wants His enemies to be punished. Owing to His infinite mercy, Allahu ta'ala first sent prophets 'alaihim-us-salatu wattaslimat' as messengers, and then later He sent the Awliya and the savants in their place. By declaring His rewards and torments through their tongues, He did not give an occasion for an excuse or pretext. No one can change Allah's decree and laws. The world's order cannot be rearranged in accordance with the opinions of those who do not know or see what is right. If Allahu ta'ala wished, He could guide everybody to the righteous way and could put everybody into Paradise. But He wanted in eternity to fill Hell with people and genies. A person who realizes the greatness of Allahu ta'ala cannot ask Him the reason why.
Who can say anything against Him, save fear;
What should be done, except giving oneself up.
He who follows the Prophet will also follow him in inviting people and in performing Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar. He who does not do these has not adapted himself to him. If disbelievers were not Allah's enemies, it would not be fard to feel hostility towards them. It would not be the first of the things to bring a man closer to Allahu ta'ala. It would not be an important part of or an additive to iman. It would not cause the Wilayat (the grade of Awliya) to be attained and Allah's consent and love to be gained. Our Prophet (sall Allahu 'alaihi wa sallam) declared, "The best of worships is to love Muslims because they are Muslims and to dislike disbelievers because they are disbelievers." When Allahu ta'ala asked Hadrat Musa, "What did you do for Me?" he answered, "O my Allah, for you I performed namaz, fasted, gave zakat, and mentioned your name very much." Upon this, Allahu ta'ala declared, "O Musa! Your prayers (namaz) are documents for you. Your fastings are a shield against Hell. The zakat is a shade that protects you against the heat of the day of the Last Judgement. Your mentioning my name very much is a light that will illuminate you in the darkness of the grave and the Resurrection. That is, all these are useful for you. What did you do for Me?" Hadrat Musa entreated, "O my Allah! Tell me the worship which is for Thee!" Allahu ta'ala declared in an ayat al-karima, "O Musa! Did you love those who loved Me for My sake, and did you feel hostility towards My enemies for My sake?" So, Hadrat Musa realized that the good deed done for Allah was to love for His sake and to be hostile for His sake.
Love necessitates that you love the friends of your darling and be at odds with the enemies of the darling. This love and this enmity are not within the power of faithful lovers; they cannot help themselves. This happens by itself without striving, without taking pains. The friend's friends seem beautiful, and His enemies seem ugly and evil. Also, the love that occurs within those who are seized by the pretty appearance of the world requires this same process. Unless the person who says that he loves keeps away from the enemies of his darling, he is not regarded as a man of his word. He is called a hypocrite, that is, a liar. Shaikh-ul-Islam Abdullah Ansari 'quddisa sirruh' says, "One day Abul Husain bin Sam'un offended my teacher Husri. Since that day my heart has been feeling unfriendly towards him." It will be appropriate here to mention a famous saying of the great, "If you are not offended by the one who offends your master, a dog is better than you are." These two principles of love are declared in the Qur'an and hadiths. [Those who wish may refer to the Persian original or the Arabic or Turkish versions of the twenty-ninth letter]. As it is understood from these ayat al-karimas, it causes a man to be away from Allahu ta'ala if he loves he enemies of Allahu ta'ala. Unless there is enmity, there will be no love. But this enmity should not cause one to deviate into the way of disliking the Ashab-i kiram, as some people do. Enmity is to be felt towards the enemies. Hostility felt towards friends, as in the example of Rafidis and Shiites, is rejected. Because all of the Ashab-i kiram were honored with attaining our Prophet's presence and company and his blessed looks, which were nourishment for the heart and soul, they loved one another and felt hostility towards disbelievers. They all were darlings of the Messenger of Allah. Can it ever be a principle of love for Rasulullah to feel hostile even towards one of them! Don't those who say so show their enmity instead of their love?
Question: Of the great Awliya 'qaddas-Allahu ta'ala asrarahum-ul-'aziz', those who believed in Wahdat-i wujud said that everything in this world is a mirror reflecting Allahu ta'ala. In everything, nothing besides the perfect Attributes of Allahu ta'ala can be seen. Then, isn't it necessary to deem everything good, to love everything, and not to deem anything bad? There is a saying: No absolute evil exists in the world! [The pantheism philosophy of Spinoza, a philosopher from Holland, is a copy taken from Muslims' books on Wahdat-i wujud.].
Answer: It is commanded clearly in the Qur'an to dislike disbelievers, to feel hostility towards them through the heart, and to treat the harbis severely. [Harbis are a class of disbelievers explained at the end of the twentieth chapter.] It is out of the question to doubt this. No matter what disbelievers' essence is, it is fard and necessary for us to adapt ourselves to the Qur'an. Our business is with nass, not with fuss. [That is, our task is with the Qur'an al-karim and hadith ash-Sharifs, not with the books of the Awliya. For example, Hadrat Muhyiddin-i Arabi's kashfs [Manifestation, appearance of Allah's Attributes.] that are contrary to the Qur'an and hadiths, which he communicates in his book Fusus, cannot be documents for us.] In the Last Judgement, being saved from Hell and attaining salvation will depend on the Qur'an and hadiths, not on the books of the Awliya. Fancies, dreams, kashfs and inspirations that occur to the hearts of the Awliya cannot take the place of the Qur'an and hadiths. Those with erroneous kashf or inspiration have to adapt themselves to the Qur'an and hadiths and act in accordance with the Qur'an and hadiths, though they may not conform with their conscience and kashf. They must entreat Allahu ta'ala ceaselessly so that correct inspirations will occur to them and their hearts' eyes will be salved with the dust of Prophets' feet. Also, let us mention the fact that those Awliya who recognize Wahdat-i wujud divide beings into grades. They say that the state and the importance of each grade are different. They do not ignore the rule of Kathrat-i wujud, ['Kathrat-i-wujud' means 'to know of the existence of creatures as well; to know both the Creator and His creatures.' The rules that are put forth by recognizing the existence of all beings are called "the rules of Kathrat-i-wujud (plurality)."] which is the basis of the Shariat. They know that to relinquish it is to be a renegade, that is, to abandon Islam. Since performing Amr-i maruf and knowing the sinners and disbelievers as evil are rules of Kathrat-i wujud, as the other rules of the Shariat are, they deem those who ignore them as mulhids The person who does ilhad [To go out of religion by misunderstanding one or more parts of the Qur'an. He who does so is called a Mulhid.] and zindiqs [A person who endeavors to defend and spread his own thoughts under the name of Islam, though they are, in fact, incompatible with Islam.]. Also those who say that there is no certain evil have to say that there is evil [in one respect]. Since we have to know disbelievers as evil and keep away from them, this evil in one respect is enough for them.
Those who recognize Wahdat-i wujud do not eat poison. They do not let others eat it, either. They kill the scorpion and the snake and tell others to be mindful of them. They love those who obey them and dislike those who disobey them. Hadrat Jalaladdin Rumi, one of the notables of the men of Wahdat-i wujud, says in his Mathnawi:
"He who will not believe this word;
Now I see him headlong in Hell."
These great people prefer sweet foods, delicious sherbets, exquisite textures, touching voices, fragrant odors, fine sceneries, beautiful appearances to the tasteless, ugly ones, and like them much more. They protect and take care of those who approach them, and they protect them and themselves against dangers. They pick out useful things and avoid harmful ones. They try to obtain what they need. They educate their children. They consult one another about their important affairs, and they do not let their daughters and wives go out without covering themselves and do not let others approach them. They keep their children away from bad friends. They punish the cruel and their enemies, and warn their patients against harmful food. Are these acts of Wahdat-i wujud or Kathrat-i wujud? Then, is it worthy, is it reasonable to try to escape one's duties as a born servant (of Allah) through the rules of Wahdat-i wujud and to cease from obeying the rules of Kathrat in affairs pertaining to the next world, while it is fard to obey them? Is it reasonable to make Wahdat-i wujud a pretext for avoiding the responsibilities we have in this base worldly life? The reason for it is not to believe the divine rules, to disbelieve the Prophets and not to have iman in the Resurrection and in the torments and blessings of the next world. Of those who recognized Wahdat-i wujud, the ones with correct hals [Continuous variation of the kashfs and manifestations that come to the heart.] very strongly adhered to their faith and their actions were compatible with the Shariat. This fact is written at length in books. My father, who was my master, the cause of my coming to life and my happiness, was very careful while making an abdast (ablution), in taharat [cleaning oneself from najasat which is explained in article 34], in namaz, and in observing the adabs [There is a special adab in doing everything. The adab of doing something means to follow the conditions necessary for doing it in the best manner.], and he used to say, "I learned these by seeing them from my father. It is not easy to learn from books how to observe the adab together with all its subtle particulars." His father, the grandfather of this poor person, was a man of Wahdat-i wujud and was an unequalled 'arif [see preface] in the marifats [see article 38] in the book Fusus. At the same time, he was perfect in observing the Shariat. My father used to say that he had learned this behavior from his master Hadrat Ruknaddin-i Chashti by seeing his actions. He was one of the great Awliya of Wahdat-i wujud and he was always overcome by his hals and kashfs; yet it was known by everybody that he was a perfect person in adhering to the Shariat. Hadrat Ubaidullah-i Ahrar was inclined to Wahdat-i wujud. Yet he was matchless in adhering to the Shariat and in spreading the Din, the Shariat. He often said, "If I were a shaikh, no other shaikh would find a disciple for himself. But I was commanded to spread the Shariat, not to become a shaikh." Shaikh-i Akbar Muhyiddin-i Arabi 'quddisa sirruh' was a Sahib-i ithnad [What he said was taken as a document. His words were used as documents.] in the knowledge of hadith and was in the grade of ijtihad in the knowledge of fiqh. He used to say, "With our Prophet's command, 'Call yourself to account (for your conduct) before you are called to account,' some shaikhs call themselves to account every day and every night for what they have done. I have surpassed them in this accounting; I call myself to account for what I have thought as well as for what have done." Sultan-ul-Arifin Bayazid-i Bastami and Sayyid-ut-taifa Junaid-i Baghdadi 'quddisa sirruhuma', who may be said to be the founders and the leaders of Wahdat-i wujud, adapted themselves to the Shariat from head to toe. When Bayazid performed namaz, the rattling of the bones in his chest would be heard. Everybody should have heard about the words of Hallaj-i Mansur. Nevertheless, he used to perform a thousand rakats of namaz every day and every night, and he performed five hundred rakats the night before he was executed.
It is surprising that some of those who say that we shouldn't interfere with anybody and that we shouldn't attack [others'] consciences make intimate friends with the disbelievers, such as Jews, Jukis, Brahmans, Mulhids, Zindiqs, Armenians, Masons and Renegades, who have deviated into different ways. At the same time they say "retrogressive, reactionary, fanatical" about the Ahl as-sunnat wal jamaat, who adhere to the sunnat, to the way of Rasulullah; and they feel hostility towards these real Muslims, who were given the good news of "It is only these who will be saved from Hell," and who were praised, "It is only these who follow my and my Ashab's way." While they make friends with disbelievers, they take pleasure in hurting, insulting and annihilating these true Muslims. What kind of Wahdat-i wujud, what kind of unity is it to feel hostility towards those who follow the way of Hadrat Muhammad, who is Allah's compassion upon all classes of beings, while being friendly with disbelievers, towards whom the Qur'an commands us to feel hostility? Isn't this sheer disbelief and enmity towards Islam?
All the Prophets, the Ashab-i kiram, the Tabiin and the Salaf-i salihin 'radi-Allahu anhum ajmain' [See article 26 for the Ashab-i kiram, the Tabiin and Taba'-i Tabiin.] strove very much to perform Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar. They suffered much torment and torture for this cause. If it were good in our religion not to interfere with anybody, it would not have been said that it was a symptom of iman for the heart to refuse a sin. Indeed, it is declared in the hadith: "Prevent the sinner from sinning with your hand. If you are unable to do it, prevent him through words. If you cannot do it either, dislike it [the sin] through the heart! And this is the lowest grade of iman." If it were good not to perform Amr-i maruf, the worshipper who would not do Amr-i maruf to a sinning tribe would not be destroyed together with them. As a matter of fact, it is declared in a hadith: "Allahu ta'ala commanded Hadrat Jabrail to sink a city into the earth. Jabrail said, 'O Allah! A born servant of Thine in that city has not disobeyed Thee even for a moment. He has always obeyed and worshipped Thee; 'Sink him, too! His face never changed when he saw sinners'."
Question: The hundred and eighth ayat of Surat-ul-Maida declares: "O My born servants who have iman! Take care of yourselves! If you find the right way, others' going astray will not harm you." That is, Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar are not permitted to be done, are they?
Answer: To find the right way mentioned here, it is also necessary to do Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar. That is, Allahu ta'ala declares: "My believing born servants! If you do what I have commanded and worship and perform Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar, others' going astray will not harm you." It is written in books when and why this ayat was revealed, and that many ayats and hadiths about Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar were commanded after it.
Question: It is the Prophets' way to perform Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i munkar and jihad against disbelievers. Isn't it the way of the Awliya not to touch consciences, not to interfere with anybody?
Answer: They are fard [commanded] in the Qur'an and hadiths. The commandments are for everybody. They are not only for some people. Prophets, Awliya, savants and the ignorant are equal in carrying out the commandments. Let us repeat that it depends on following the Prophets to be saved from Hell and to attain endless bliss. Whatsoever the Awliya obtain from Wilayat [see later explanations in this article], from love, from marifat [see article 38] and from qurb-i ilahi [Its lexical meaning is 'to the approach, to get close to Allah'. In Islam, it is used in the sense 'to earn the love of Allah, to be loved by Allah.'] they obtain it as a reward for following the Prophets. What is other than this way is the way of deviation, of the devil. Abdullah Ibni Masud 'radi-Allahu anhuma' says, "One day, the Prophet drew a straight line for us and said, 'This is the right way which makes man attain Allah's consent.' " Then, drawing some slanting lines like fish-bones on both sides of that line, he said, 'And these are the ways which the devil makes one deviate into." Therefore, if a person wants to walk on the right way without adapting himself to the Prophets, certainly he will deviate into slanting ways. If the obtains something, it is istidraj. That is, it ends in loss and harm. Hadrat Ubaidullah-i Ahrar 'quddisa sirruh' said, "If they gave me all the kashfs and hals that occur to the heart, and yet if they didn't ornament my heart with the Ahl as-sunnat creed, I would deem myself destroyed, ruined. If they piled up all the disasters and desolations upon me, yet if they honored my heart with the creed of the Ahl as-sunnat wa jamaat, I would never worry." If the hals and kashfs that occur to the Awliya are in accordance with following our Prophet, they make light upon light and the subtle mysteries of the Shariat begin to show up. All of the Ashab-i kiram 'radi-Allahu ta'ala anhum ajmain', the Salaf-i salihin, and the mashayikh- i Mustaqim-ul-ahwal [The great men of tasawwuf whose hals, kashfs are correct and whose kashfs conform with the Shariat.] were in this state. In tasawwuf, the two ways which are the way of Nubuwwat and the way of Wilayat are in haqiqat [The information which Allahu ta'ala sent to prophets through an angel is called the Shariat. Each Muslim learns the Shariat from masters. When a Muslim's heart has been purified from sins, information on the Shariat comes to his heart by itself. That Muslim has reached the haqiqat. To reach the haqiqat, it is necessary to strive and make progress in the way called tasawwuf. The spiritual training that is done and the things that are required to enter this way until reaching the haqiqat are called the tariqat. ] a single way shown by the Shariat, for both of them make man attain [to perfection] on condition that he will adapt himself to the Prophet. Likewise, the saying that the ways that will guide man to Allah's consent and marifat are as many as the breaths of creatures is correct, for there is a way that guides every fancy to its origin, and there is a different ayn-i sabita, that is, a mabda-i tayyun, for each creature. In other words, a different divine name causes each creature to be created and to stay in existence. To attain through any of these ways depends on observing the rules of the Shariat. He who deviates from the Shariat will either break down on the way, or will go off the rails. Then, all ways begin with the Shariat. That is, the Shariat is like the trunk of a tree. All the tariqats, that is, ways, are like the branches, veins, buds, leaves and flowers of that tree.
[Emr-i maruf can be carried out in two ways. One is through speaking, writing and every means of communication. However, with this method, fitna may occur if one has an insufficient amount of knowledge, or if disrespect is shown to the people being addressed, or to their traditions or laws. The other approach is to be an exemplary person in your behavior by adopting the superior morality of Islam. Presently a smiling face, a friendly manner, obeying the laws, paying your taxes and debts, and not despising anyone or violating anyone's property rights or chastity is a most efficient and beneficial method of teaching Islam to others. For this reason, it is said that "lisan-ul-hal antaqu min lisan-il- qal" which means the language of the body and behavior, without making use of words, is superior to language itself. Therefore, to live in accordance with the superior morality of Islam is the best way to perform Amr-i maruf and Nahy-i-munkar. It is to carry out an important fard; it is to perform an ibadat. Tasawwuf is the way which enables man to develop the ikhlas needed in worshipping his Creator, and in enhancing the good morals necessary in his dealings with human beings. This way is taught by a murshid-i kamil. Every science has its own specialists. Man learns a specific branch of science from its specialist. The specialist of the knowledge of tasawwuf is the one who is a Murshid-i kamil. Anyone who is a specialist in any branch of science is not called a Murshid-i kamil.]