English translation of Maktubat Imam Rabbani (selective 100) | Mujaddid Alf sani | Sheikh Ahmad sirhindi
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Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. Hamd be to Allahu ta'ala. Salam to those slaves of His whom He has chosen!
Question: As a salik makes progress on a path of tasawwuf, he sometimes visualizes himself in the grade of the Sahaba, who are superior to him with the unanimity. He even sees himself in the grade of prophets. How does that happen? Some people think that the salik says he is in the grade of the owners of those ranks. So they do not believe what the salik says. They even censure him. What is its reason?
Answer: Low people going up to the grades of the high is like poor people going to the doors of the rich or to the homes of the owners of favors, asking for what they need from them, and attaining their favors. Those who think that such people going up to those grades means to become equal to the owners of the grades must be ignorant. This promotion of theirs is sometimes intended for them to see the grades and yearn for them. It is like going to see the palaces and villas of sultans and princes in the world. It would be idiocy to think that such people have become equal to sultans and princes. Servants enter their master's private rooms to serve them. To sweep or dust, they approach the sultans.
Sufferings shower upon the afflicted from every direction.
Some people look for a pretext to blame, or slander a poor person. May Allahu ta'ala give them reason! They should have looked for a way to protect a lonely Darwish from slander and calumny. They should have striven to protect a Muslim's chastity and honor.
Those who calumniate the saliks who are made to ascend to those grades may be of two groups:
If they say that the salik thinks that he is equal to the owners of the grades, they have deemed the salik as a disbeliever, a zindiq. For, if a person considers himself equal to prophets, he becomes a disbeliever. It has been communicated by the Sahaba and the Tabiin unanimously that the Shaikhayn [Abu Bakr and Umar 'alaihimurridwan'] are superior to all other Muslims. Our imams of the din write this unanimity in their books. One of them is Imam-i Shafi'i. All the Sahaba are superior to all other Muslims who came after them. For, no superiority can be like the superiority in the sohbat of the Best of Mankind. In that age when Islam was so weak and Muslims were so few, a small action done by the Sahaba to strengthen Islam and to help the Master of Prophets was given so much thawab that others cannot get that much thawab even if they spend all their lives with strict and heavy mortifications and by worshipping all the time. For this reason our Prophet 'sallAllahu alaihi wa sallam' declared: "If any one of my Ummat gives alms in gold as big as Uhud mountain, he will not get so much thawab as that which is given for my Ashab's alms of one mud of barley." [One mud is equal to two ritls; one ritl is a hundred and thirty dirham-i shar'i. One dirham-i shar'i is 3.365 grams. One mud is a unit of weight which weighs 875 grams.]
The reason why Hadrat Abu Bakr Siddiq 'radiAllahu anh' is the highest of the Ummat is because he was ahead of others being converted to Islam, in sacrificing most of his property and his life, and in every kind of service. The tenth ayat of Hadid Sura, "There is a higher grade for the person who sacrificed his property and who performed jihad before the conquest of Mecca than the grade which is for the person who gave away his property and who made jihad after the conquest. Allahu ta'ala has promised them all Paradise," was sent down for Hadrat Abu Bakr. Taking the virtues and events into consideration, some people hesitate to admit that he is the highest. They do not know that if virtues and wonders were the reasons for superiority, any Muslim who had more virtues and wonders than his own Prophet would necessarily be superior to his Prophet. This means to say that the mystery, the reason for superiority is something other than virtues and wonders. According to this faqir, the reason is to be ahead of others in strengthening the din, in helping Allah's din by sacrificing property and life. He who is ahead of the whole Ummat will certainly be superior to them all. Anyone who is ahead will be superior to those following him. Those who are ahead are the religious masters, teachers of those who follow them. Those who follow are illuminated with the nurs of those who precede them and benefit from their barakats. In this Ummat, after our Prophet 'alaihi wa ala alihissalawatu wassalam', the next owner of this fortune, of this happiness, is Abu Bakr Siddiq 'radiAllahu anh'. For, he is ahead of the leaders in strengthening the din, in sacrificing his property, performing jihad, struggling hard and losing his fame and honor for helping the highest of Prophets. Then, he is higher than all others.
Our Prophet 'sallAllahu alaihi wa sallam' wished that Islam's exaltation and strengthening would be through 'Umar-ul-Faruq. Allahu ta'ala made him sufficient to help His beloved Prophet. He declared in the sixty-fourth ayat of Anfal Sura: "O My Prophet! Allahu ta'ala and those Believers who follow thee will suffice in helping thee." Abdullah ibni Abbas 'radiAllahu anhuma' said, "This ayat descended when 'Umar-ul-Faruq became a Muslim." Then, after Abu Bakr Siddiq, he is the highest one. It is for this reason that the Sahaba and the Tabiin declared unanimously that these two were the highest. Hadrat Ali 'radiAllahu anh' said, "Abu Bakr and 'Umar are the highest of the Ummat. He who thinks I am higher than they are is a slanderer. As slanderers will be beaten, I will beat him with a stick." I have explained these in detail in my other letters. [The superiority of these two is explained in detail in the book Qurrat-ul- 'aynayn and in the Turkish book, Ashab-i kiram.]
It is idiocy to consider oneself equal to the Sahaba. It is ignorance to liken oneself to the superior people who came earlier. Let us mention also that the superiority caused by the honor of being earlier is peculiar to those who attained the sohbat of the Best of Mankind in the first century (of Islam). This rule does not apply to the later centuries. Those who came in the later centuries may be superior to those who came in the centuries previous to them. In fact, of those who are in the same century, the later ones may be higher than the earlier ones [the disciple may surpass his master]. May Allahu ta'ala awaken those who slander them from the sleep of unawareness! It is so base, so abominable to gossip about a Muslim, to swear at him thinking that he is guilty. It is stubbornness, a grudge to say that a Muslim is a heretic or that he is a disbeliever through illusion or supposition. Those who commit such slanders without any grounds become heretical, they become disbelievers. The hadith states that this is so.
Let us come back to our subject. Let us explain the second group of those who speak ill of the saliks. They do not say 'disbelievers' or 'heretical' about those saliks who say that they are in those grades, yet one of the two possibilities may be the case: they say that the Salik is a liar. This means to think ill of a Muslim and is haram. But if they believe what he says and know that he does not claim to be equal to the great, there will no longer be any reason for their slandering him. Why do they swear at him, then? True kashf (divines) should be interpreted in a good sense. The owners of true divines should not be blamed, or bad and ugly words should not be said about them.
Question: Suppose those who gossip about him said, "Why should the saliks reveal that state of his which will cause instigation and gossip?"
Answer: The great men of tasawwuf have divulged such states of theirs often. In fact, it has become a custom. They have divulged such states of theirs with good intentions, for honest purposes. Its reason sometimes is that they want to find out if such doubtful states of theirs are right or wrong by divulging them to their murshids. And sometimes they have divulged them in order to encourage youngsters. And sometimes, without any reason whatsoever, they only utter it inadvertently, which happens during the spiritual intoxication on the way of tariqat. He who divulges such states for fame, in order to advertise himself, is a liar. If he has such a state, it is harmful to him; it is istidraj.
Question: Prophets have always lived with hardships and calamities. In fact, it has been stated, "Disasters and troubles come upon prophets most. Next they come upon the Awliya, and then upon those who are like them." On the other hand, the thirtieth ayat of Shura Sura purports, "The disasters which come upon you are punishment for your sins." According to the ayat, a multitude of disasters signifies a multitude of sins. Those who are not prophets should suffer more adversity. Why does He send calamities and difficulties upon those whom He loves? How can those who are beloved to Him be in difficulties and problems while His enemies are in comfort and blessings?
Answer: The world was not created for pleasures, for flavor. It is the next world which was created for such purposes. This world and the next are opposites. To please one of them will offend the other. In other words, to look for pleasures in one of them will cause you to suffer difficulties in the other. Then, those who have had many benefits in the world [if they do not fulfill the thanks for them] will fear much and will suffer many hardships in the next world. Likewise, a Believer who has suffered much in the world [though he has done his best to keep away from dangers] will attain many blessings in the next world. The world's life, when compared with the long duration of the next world, is not even a drop of water compared with something endless? So, pitying His beloved ones, He makes them suffer hardships for a few days in the world so that they will attain endless blessings. Playing tricks on His enemies, He gives them a little gain, and thus drags them towards bitter pains, a case which is called istidraj.
Question: A poor disbeliever suffers hardships in both this world and the next. The difficulties which he suffers in the world will not cause him to attain benefits in the next world. What is its reason?
Answer: The disbeliever is Allah's enemy. He must be tormented eternally. Not to torment him in the world, to let him live as he wishes, means a favor, a pleasure for him. It is for this reason that it has been stated, "The world is disbelievers' Paradise." Not only favors are done to some disbelievers by not tormenting them in the world, but also they are given additional blessings and favors. To others favors are done by only not tormenting them, though they are not given any blessings in addition. There are always hidden ultimate divine causes, useful reasons in these cases.
Question: Allahu ta'ala is Almighty. If He gave His beloved ones blessings and benefits in both this world and the next, and if the advantages He gave them in the world did not cause them to suffer sorrows in the next world, would it not be better?
Answer: There are various answers to this:
Answer 1: If they did not suffer cares and disasters in the world, they would not appreciate the endless favors in Paradise, nor would they appreciate the blessing of endless comfort and health. He who does not suffer hunger will not get pleasure from eating. He who does not suffer difficulties will not appreciate comfort. To give them hardships in the world is sort of intended to increase the eternal flavor. These hardships are blessings, and the blessings given to the great are guised in adversity in order to test ignorant people. What is represented as problems to aliens is blessings to the beloved ones.
Answer 2: Disasters, hardships are problems to the ignorant, yet anything coming from their Beloved tastes sweet to those great people. As they take pleasure from the blessings, so they take pleasure from the hardships. Even, being the Beloved's wish, with which their own desires have not been mixed, the problems taste sweeter. Such flavor cannot be found in the blessings. For, the blessings contain the desires of their nafs, too. When a calamity comes upon them, their nafs weeps, moans. Those great people like the adversities more than the blessings. The adversities taste to them sweeter than the blessings. The flavor which they taste in the world originates from calamities and disasters. If it weren't for hardships and disasters in the world, the world would mean nothing to them. If it weren't for the world's painful events, the world would look empty to them, nonsensical.
Translation from a Persian poem:
My purpose in loving you
Is to taste cares and sorrows.
Were my wish not so; well,
The world has many other tastes.
Then, Allah's lovers are in pleasures and are happy in both this world and the next. The pleasures which they get from hardships do not detract from the pleasures of the next world. What eliminates the pleasures of the next world is the kind of flavor which is looked for by the ignorant. O our Rab (Allah)! What a great favor it is which Thou doest to Thine lovers! The blessings which Thou givest to others are Thine compassion to them, too. And what is trouble, pain to others is, again, a blessing to them. Others become happy when the blessing comes. But these great people are happy both in favors and in difficulties. For, they do not care if the deed is beautiful or ugly. What they care for is the beauty of the One who does the deed. He is the most beautiful of the beautiful. Since He who does the deed is beloved, His deed is beloved and tastes sweet, too. Because everything in the world is the deed of the beautiful Maker, no matter if it causes harm and trouble, it is for them what they love and desire. It tastes sweet to them. O our Allah! What kind of favor and blessing is it that Thou sendest these secret and valuable gifts to Thine lovers without letting the outsiders know of them! Making them content with Thine wish every moment, Thou keepest them in pleasures and flavors! What Thou sendest as affliction, shame and disgrace to others, is beauty, perfection to them. Thou hast placed their wishes in those things that are not wished for. Contrary to what Thou doest to others, Thou hast made their tastes and pleasures in the world means for increasing their grades and pleasures in the next world. This is a great favor from Allahu ta'ala. He gives it to whomever He likes. Allahu ta'ala is the owner of great blessings.
Answer 3: This world is a place for testing. Here, right is mixed with wrong and the right are mixed with the wrong. If He did not give hardships and cares to His lovers, if He gave them only to His enemies, the lovers, being distinguishable from the enemies, would be known. There would be no use in testing. But it is necessary to believe without seeing. All the happinesses of this world and the next are dependent upon believing without seeing. This fact is communicated in the twenty-fifth ayat of Hadid Sura: "Allahu ta'ala, in order to know those who help His Prophets without seeing..." This means to say that by showing His lovers in cares and difficulties, He has camouflaged them from the eyes of His enemies. Thus, the world has become a place for testing. His lovers are in disasters outwardly, but in actual fact they are in pleasures and flavors. Hence, the enemies are suffering loss and harm.
So was the case with Prophets fighting the enemy in holy wars. The Holy War of Badr was won by the Muslims, while the Holy War of Uhud was won by the disbelievers. Allahu ta'ala informs of this fact in the hundred and fortieth ayat of Al-i 'Imran Sura.
Answer 4: Yes, Allahu ta'ala is Almighty. He can give His beloved ones comfort in both this world and the next. But His adat is not so. He likes to hide His power under His hikmat and adat. He has hidden His deeds, His creating, under causes. Then, because the world is the opposite of the next world, His beloved ones should suffer hardships in the world so that they will attain the next world's blessings. [Those who are beloved to Allahu ta'ala take measures against hardships, disasters and dangers. They try to avoid them. It is the Prophets' sunnat to avoid things that are unbearable. They take pleasure from hardships which come upon them despite precautions. It is a high grade to take pleasure from disasters. It is something which can be done by very few distinguished people.]
Main answer: The reason why hardships and disasters come upon a person is because he has sinned. Yet the troubles and disasters cause the sins to be forgiven. Then, the beloved ones should be given many troubles so that they will be purified of their sins. [To forgive the sins of His beloved ones, Allahu ta'ala afflicts them with misfortunes and disasters. When you do tawba and istighfar, your sins will be forgiven. Then there will be no reason for the coming of misfortunes and disasters, and the misfortunes that have already come will go away. Then, you should say (the prayer of) istigfar very often in order to secure yourself against misfortunes and disasters.] We should not think that the sins of the beloved are like the sins of enemies. "What the good look on as doing good is sinning to the beloved," has been said. Their sins, many as they may be, are unlike others' sins. They are similar to forgetting or erring. They have not been committed on purpose, by intent. The hundred and fifteenth ayat of Taha Sura purports about Hadrat Adam 'ala nabiyyina wa alaihissalam', "We had told Adam. But he forgot. He did not commit on purpose, deliberately." Then, disasters' and hardships coming upon the beloved show that their sins are being forgiven to a large extent. It does not indicate that their sins are many. Causing many disasters to befall His beloved ones, He forgives their sins and purifies them. Thereby, He protects them from the disasters of the next world. Rasulullah 'sallAllahu alaihi wa sallam' was about to die and was suffering immense pains, and Hadrat Fatima 'radiAllahu anha', who loved and pitied her father very much and about whom Rasulullah had said, "Fatima is a part from me," was writhing, too. Upon seeing his daughter in this state, he stated to console her: "This is the only trouble which your daddy will ever suffer. He will no longer see anything unpleasant!"
It is such a great blessing that the very bitter torments in Hell are eliminated with a few days' trouble and that causes are sent in the world to clear away sins. He postpones the accounting of others' sins until the next world. Then, He should place many calamities and disasters upon the beloved ones in the world. Others are not worthy of this blessing. For, they commit sins but do not entreat Him or hang their heads in shame or trust themselves to Him. They commit sins without feeling shame, deliberately and intentionally. In fact, they sin insistently. In fact, making fun of Allah's ayats, they go unbelievably too far. Penalty varies depending on the gravity of the crime. If the crime is small and the guilty one hangs his head in shame and entreats, the crime may be forgiven through worldly hardships. But if the crime is big and heavy and the guilty one is stubborn and apathetic, his penalty in the next world should be endless and extremely bitter. The thirty-third ayat of Nahl Sura purports, "Allahu ta'ala does not treat them unjustly. They have done cruelty to themselves and deserved heavy penalties."
[Sin is not to do Allah's commandments and not to abstain from His prohibitions. Commandments and prohibitions are for Muslims, for those who have iman. He has not honored those who have no iman, disbelievers, with commanding them or making them worship. Like animals, they do what they wish, and it is not a sin. They are not tormented in the world for not worshipping, for sinning; they get every kind of blessing; they obtain what they wish and work for. Only, the cruel ones, those who torment creatures get their deserts in the world. Disbelievers have been commanded one thing only, they have been asked to do one thing only. This one thing is having iman, becoming Muslim. Disobeying this one command, disbelievers have committed only one crime. Yet, it is the gravest crime. The penalty for the crime is very great, very bitter and endless. There cannot be such a penalty in the world. This endless penalty will be given to them in the next world, in Hell.]
You say that the ignoramuses, the idiots make fun [of those who perform namaz, who fast and obey the Shariat. They call them retrogressive, you say.] You say that they say, "Why does Allah send disasters, misfortunes upon His beloved ones? Why doesn't He send them goodness and blessings. [We are not obeying His commands. Why doesn't He punish us! Aha! We are comfortable, we are amusing and enjoying ourselves and making merry as we like, getting the world's delicacies through tricks and lies. You are wasting time performing namaz and fasting, keeping away from worldly pleasures and living in straits! In addition to these difficulties, your Allah is sending disasters, calamities upon you. If Islam were a way of happiness, you would live more comfortably, better and more happily than we do."] Thus, with such despicable waffles, they deny these beloved slaves of Allahu ta'ala.
Disbelievers did say so to the Best of Mankind, too. It is purported in the seventh ayat of Furqan Sura, "The disbelievers said, 'What kind of prophet is this? He eats, drinks and goes about in the streets as we do. Were he a prophet, angels would come to him, help him, and they, too, would warn us and threaten us with Hell. Or he would be sent treasures of money, or he would have orchards, farms, and would eat whatever he liked...' " Such words are said by those who disbelieve the Hereafter, Paradise and Hell, and who are short-sighted. Does a person who knows that the blessings in Paradise and torments in Hell are endless ever mind a few days' disasters and hardships in the world? Thinking that these problems will cause endless happiness, he meets them as blessings. He takes no heed of what the ignorant say. Anxiety, calamities, disasters are the unerring witnesses of love. What difference does it make if idiots do not understand this. The best to do is not to talk to such ignoramuses [not to listen to their radios, not to see their motion pictures, newspapers and books].
Answer 6: Hardships are the Beloved's lasso. [It is a lasso thrown by the Beloved One to pull the lover to Himself]. It is like a whip protecting the lovers from looking at things other than the Beloved One. It makes the lovers return to the Beloved One. Then, anxiety and disasters should be sent upon the lovers. Disasters protect the lovers against the sin of being fond of things other than the Beloved One. Others are not worthy of this blessing. They pull the lovers to the Beloved One by force. They pull those whom they like through anxiety and disasters. And those whom they dislike they let free like vagabonds. Among them, he who is worthy of endless bliss will come round to the right course by himself, will strive hard, thus attaining favor and blessing. Let him who will not do so think of what is going to happen to him!
As it is seen, disasters will come abundantly upon the selected ones. Not so many of them will come upon those who strive and struggle. It is for this reason that our Prophet, leader of the selected, loved and honored best by the liked and loved, stated, "No other prophet suffered as much as I have." Then, anxiety and disasters are such a skilled guide that they will unerringly make the lover attain to the Beloved One. They protect him from being blemished by looking at things other than the Beloved One. It is surprising that, if the lovers have treasures, millions, they will give away all of them to buy anxiety and disasters. And he who knows nothing of divine love will spend millions to rid the anxiety and disasters.
Question: Sometimes a lover becomes sorry when disasters and hardships come upon him, a case which shows that he dislikes them. What is its reason?
Answer: That kind of sorrow and reluctance is in appearance. It originates from his nature, from his construction. There are benefits in this reluctance. For, if it weren't for this reluctance one could not be hostile or fight against one's nafs. The trouble which our Prophet was seen suffering when he was about to die was the final parts of the jihad against the nafs. Thus, even his last breath was given out struggling against the enemy. Hence, he performed the most vehement struggle. He got rid of his human attributes which existed in his nature. He brought his blessed nafs round to complete obedience, to real pacification.
Then, trouble is the broker of the market of love. What business will a person who has no love have with the broker? What use will the broker be to him and what value will the broker have in his eyes?
Answer 7: Another reason why disasters are sent is to distinguish the true lovers from those liars who pretend to love. A true lover takes pleasure from disasters, he gets happy. But a liar feels pain, complains. If he has tasted love, he does not feel real pain. His suffering is in appearance. Lovers distinguish these two kinds of pain from each other. For this reason, "A Wali will recognize a Wali," has been said.
Question: Again, you ask: 'adam means nonexistence in every respect. It has no connection with existence. Then, how is it possible that 'adam exists in the mind, in knowledge? How can something existing in the mind go out of the imagination?
Answer: Yes, 'adam means nonexistence. But all creatures were made from it; owing to its serving as a mirror, everything came into being. The appearances of Allah's names in the 'Ilm-i ilahi were reflected in the mirror of 'adam, divided it into 'adams and caused it to exist in knowledge. Thus 'adam, escaping nonexistence in every respect, became the origin of creatures. These creatures exist outside of knowledge, too. They are in the grade of sense and illusion. They do not cease to exist when sense and illusion cease to exist. In fact, they may be said to exist outside. Why should you marvel at this progress of 'adam? All the events of this universe are based on 'adam. We should realize the greatness of the power of Allahu ta'ala, who has based the universe on 'adam. He has manifested the perfections in the existence through its defects. The reason for 'adam's progress is obvious. For, the appearances of the names and attributes of Allahu ta'ala in the divine knowledge are sitting in its room. They are in its bed. It has become a way that leads the appearances, the shades to the real origin. Blind hearts will not see this. "Our duty is to guide those who want to find the way to Allahu ta'ala." The words 'illusion' and 'imagination' made you doubt. Do not marvel at 'adam's progress! For, not every event or deed in this universe is outside knowledge or outside the imagination. But there is a difference between one imagination and another. Being in the grade of imagination is different from coming into being in the imagination. The being in the grade of the imagination is a real being. In fact, it may be said to be a being outside. But a being which has occurred to the imagination is not so. It is not so permanent. I wrote some of 'adam's talents. Amir Muhibullah took one copy with him. Just read it if you want to know!
Question: You ask about Fana and Baqa.
Answer: I have written about them in my various letters and booklets. If there are any unintelligible places left, we have to see each other, sit together to understand them well. Their essential explanation will not go into writing. Even if it went into writing, it would not be right to write. For, who on earth would comprehend, understand them? Fana and Baqa are Shuhudi, not wujudi; [In other words, Fana is to deem oneself as nonexistent. It is not to cease to exist. And so is Baqa.] Man, who is nothing, cannot become Allah. He does not unite with Allah. Man is always man. And Allah is always Allah. If a person thinks Fana and Baqa are wujudi and, removing man's ta'ayyun-i wujudi, says that man will unite with the real being who is free from ta'ayyun and from likeness and that man himself will cease to exist and then will exist eternally with Allah, he becomes a zindiq. To say that man will get rid of all dependencies and bonds and will unite with the independent, like a drop of water leaving its place and dropping into the sea, is to be a zindiq. We trust ourselves to Allah's protection against such a rotten belief. Fana means to forget everything other than Allahu ta'ala, not to set one's heart on others and to purify one's heart of all one's wishes. Being a born slave consists of these. And Baqa means man's adapting himself to Allah's will and adapting his wishes to Allah's wishes. Question: You mention the sayr [walking] above the anfus (inside man). Which sayr is this? The sayr in the ten grades of alam-i khalk and alam-i amr and the sayr of hay'at-i wahdani are the sayr inside the anfus. Then, which sayr is the sayr which is outside the anfus? What kind of travel is it?
Answer: Anfus (inside man), like afak (outside of man), is the shade, image of names. If, through Allah's grace, the shade forgets about himself and returns to his origin and begins to love his origin, he finds himself as his origin, as is stated in the hadith, "Everyone will be together with whomever he loves." He deems his existence as the existence of his origin. This origin also has an origin. From the first origin he passes to the second origin. He finds himself this second origin. Thus, he moves forward from one origin to another. This sayr is a journey which is above the afak and the anfus. Some called the sayr-i anfusi sayr-i fillah. The sayr which we are explaining is different from the sayr which they talk about. For, their sayr is husuli, whereas this one is wusuli. We have explained the difference between husul and wusul in our various letters.
Question: You ask us to explain that Allah's Person, Attributes and Names are so close?
Answer: The answer to this question depends on our seeing each other and talking. It will not be right to write. Written, it will be unclear. It might be understood, but not certainly. It will be very useful if it is talked over in person. [See first fascicle, 45th chapter, letter no: 3-1.]
Question: You ask about the kamalat-i nubuwwat (perfections in prophethood). "Fana, Baqa, tajalli and mabada'iyyat-i ta'ayyun are all perfections in Wilayat. What signifies the sayr in the kamalat-i nubuwwat?" you say.
Answer: During the uruj, while making progress, if there are differences, if one passes from one origin to another, such perfections are all in Wilayat. If there is no difference left, if everything has become the same, one has begun the perfections in the grade of prophethood. There is wideness in this grade, too, yet it is a different type of wideness. There is difference, too, yet it is a different type of difference. We could write no more, nor would it be understood if we did.
You ask about some of the mysteries in namaz. I shall answer it some other time.
I have written a little in response to your complaint about the people of our time. Please ask no more. Pity this faqir!
O our Allah! Forgive us our sins and our defects in doing your commandments. Do not let us deviate from the right way! Help us against disbelievers, o Allah! Amin.