English translation of Mabda-o-Ma-ad | Mujaddid Alf sani | Sheikh Ahmad sirhindi
Current page is 4/5
Translation: Sufi Irshad Alam
The Mujaddid comments on the high level of the sufi guide in importance.
The excellence of a science (fadilat-i `ilm) is commensurate with the excellence of the field of study of the science. The greater is the importance of the field of study, the higher ranked is its science. Therefore, science of the inner realm (`ilm-i batin) of the sufis is ranked higher than science of the outer [or physical] world (`ilm-i zahir), which is the lot of the ulama of outer science. Similarly, outer science [i.e. science of the Koran, hadith, sharia and kalam] is ranked comparatively higher than the science of hair-cutting or weaving.
Therefore, it is essential to be aware of the high level of the pir ― his level is several times higher than the teacher who teaches the outer science. Similarly, it is essential to be aware of the high level of the teacher of outer science ― his level is several times higher than that teacher who teaches barbering or weaving. And there are such rankings in level between every branch of outer science.
The teacher of the science of kalam (`ilm-i kalam) and jurisprudence (fiqh) is ranked higher than the teacher of grammar (nuh va sarf). Similarly, the teacher of grammar is ranked higher than the teacher of philosophy. It is so because philosophy is not a science that we need. Many of its topics are nonessential and useless. They have taken only few topics from Islamic books and even then they have misapplied them out-of-context. Therefore, they have proven themselves to be the 'wise fools.'
There is no room for intellect here. The prophetic method is beyond the method of intellectual consideration (tur-i `aql-i nazari).
Paki 64, -2
Obligation to the pir iiiiiiiii
You may know that the obligation to the pir is above the obligation to any one else, except for the divine blessings and the prophetic favors, after the obligation to exalted Allah for His blessings and the obligation to His messenger (slm) for his favors. Actually, everyone’s real pir is the messenger of Allah (slm) himself.
Although the the physical birth is from the parents, the spiritual (ma`nuwi) birth is from the pir. The physical life is only for a few days but the spiritual life is ever-lasting (???).
Pir is him who cleanses the spiritual filth of his disciples using his own heart and the spirit (qalb va ruh) and nd purifies their inner realm (ishkambeh). When face-turnings (tawajjuhat) are given to the disciples, it is sensed that the spiritual filth of the disciples dirties the giver of the tawajjuh [i.e. the pir.] And this effect lasts for a long time.
Pir is him by whose intermediation man reaches God and that is above all the felicity of this world and the last world. Pir is him by whose intermediation the instigating soul (nafs-i ammara) [of the disciple], which is intrinsically dirty (khabis), becomes holy and hallowed. And it is transformed from being instigating (ammara) to being in inner peace (itminan). And from faithlessness that is its innate disposition (kufr-i jibilli), [the instigating soul] reaches true Islam (be-islam-i haqiqi). Like a poet has written:
What can I say [on its benefits]
If I explain it, it will be boundless!
sharh-i in bi-had shod
If a pir accepts [a disciple then the disciple] should consider himsel fortunate. On the other hand, if a pir rejects a disciple then the disciple should consider it as his own mis-fortune. I seek refige from Exalted Allah from from this!
The good-pleasure (rida) of the Exalted Haqq follows the good-pleasure (rida) of the pir. Until the disciple can submerge (gom nisazad) himself in the good-pleasure of the pir, he cannot have the good-pleasure of the Haqq.
Pir’s dis-satisfaction is the disciple’s calamity. Every error he may do may be remedied but nothing can remedy the injury that is incurred due to the [displeasure of the] pir. No adversity may harm the disciple more than this injury due to the pir. We seek the refuge of Allah from this!
page 59, -2
The result [of injuring the pir] is having defects in holding the creed of Islam (mu`taqadat-i islamiyya) and idleness in performing the injunctions of the sharia
What can one say about the states and ecstasies (ahwal va mawajid) that may come to his own inner realm? If any physical symptom (athar) from a hal remains in existence, even after having hurt the pir, you may consider it to be a satanic deception that takes step-by-step to ruin (istidraj). At the end, it [that symptom] will turn out to be bad and its end result will be disaster (darr).
explain athar, above
Peace towards them who follow guidance. Wa ‘l-salamu `ala mani ttaba`a ‘l-huda.
The Mujaddid discusses on the six subtle centers and their locations on the physical body.
The heart (qalb) is from the world of command (`alam-i amr). It was put in a deep union and a passionate love (ta`alliq va ta`ashshuq-i khass) with the world of empirical things (`alam-i khalq). And then the heart was bestowed to a bodily part (mudgha) on the left side of the breast. It is like when an emperor falls in a passionate love with a lowly woman who cleans excrements (konnas) and for this love he goes to her home.
And the spirit (ruh), which is more subtle than the heart (qalb), is among the things of the left ?????? should be right (ashab-i-yamin) [wheras the heart center is located on the right??? Should be left side of the breast ]. Three more subtle centers (lata’if) [i.e. the secret heart (sirr), arcanum (khafi) and the super-arcanum (akhfa)], which are located above the spirit center (latifa-i ruh) ― in the light of the aphorism "the best thing is that which is in the middle, khair-u ‘l-umur-i awsatuha” ― have been made noble.
The more subtle is the subtle center (latifa), the more is it related to the middle. However, the subtle centers (lata’if) the secret heart (sirr) and the arcanum (khafi) ― they are located in the two sides of the subtle center super-arcanum (latifa-i akhfa) ― one on each side ― one on the right and the other one on the left. And the soul (nafs) ― which is adjacent to [the faculty of] sense perception (mujawir-i hawas) ― is related to the brain (damagh).
PICTURE ON THE LOCATION OF THE LATIFAS IN THE MUJADDIDI SYSTEM
While progressing, all the subtle centers move towards the super-arcanum center one subtle center a time.
For the heart (qalb) to progress (taraqqi), it must arrive on the station of the spirit. And to the stations that are above the spirit. Similarly, for the spirit (ruh) or [the subtle centers] that are above it to progress, they must reach (usul) the stations which are above them.
However, in the beginning, this arrival (usul) is in the way of [many] states (ahwal) [that are transient] and in the end, in the form of [a] station [that is permanent]. And the soul (nafs) progresses (taraqqi) only when it reaches (usul) the station of the heart (qalb) as [many transient] states (ahwal) at the beginning and as [a permanent] station (maqam) in the end.
p 60 l -4
Finally, all the six subtle centers join on the station of super-arcanum and flies off together towards God leaving the body empty. It is then that the sufi realizes annihilation.
At the end of this program (kar-i in), these six subtle centers (lata’if) arrives on the station of super-arcanum (akhfa) and all, in unison (bi-ittifaq) starts (qasd) to fly towards the world of holiness (`alam-i quddus). And they leave the “mold” center (latifa-i qalib) empty (khali va tahi). However, that flight is as [many different transient] states (ahwal) at the beginning and as [one single permanent] station at the end. And at that time, he [the sufi] realizes annihilation (fana’).
Note: All sufi tariqas deals with the ten subtle centers (lata’if). Five of them ― heart, spirit, secret, subtle and arcanum (qalb , ruh, sirr, khafi, akhfa) ― are of the ethereal realm the world of command (`alam-i khalq).??????? world of empirical things?????? However, they have corresponding seats in the human body. In the Naqshbandi Mujaddidiya tariqa, they are well-defined points on the surface of the skin on the breast.
Qalb is width of fingers below the left breast, ruh is width of two fingers below the right breast, sir is width of two fingers above the left breast, khafi is width of two fingers above the right breast and akhfa is above the breasts right in the middle. In other tariqas, these five subtle centers (lata’if) are located in different points in the breast. In the Qadiria tariqa, qalb is still width of two fingers below the left breast, ruh is .............. In the Chishti tariqa, qalb is still width of two fingers below the left breast, ...............
Qalb is connected with Prophet Adam, ruh with Prophet Noah, sir is with Prophet Moses, khafi is with Prophet Jesus and akhfa is with Prophet Muhammad (slm).
Qalb is mentioned ―――-- times in the Holy Koran.
Paki 66, last line
The Mujaddid explains the mystery of ‘death before death’ ― it’s the separation of the said six subtle centers from the mold.
What the sufis have called "death before death" is the separation of the said six subtle centers (lata’if) from the body (latifa-i qalib). The mystery of why vibrations and feelings are still in the body even after those six subtle centers (lata’if) are separated is described elsewhere. That is to be looked for in the proper place. There is no room for it to be described here in depth. Instead, it has been described here in brief.
Paki 67, 4
Sufi’s journey is perfect when all his six subtle centers journey together, but it is not required.
[In order to journey (sayr)], it is not necessary that all subtle centers (lata’if) would be brought together (jam`a) in the same station and then would fly (tiran) [together]. Sometimes it happens that the heart (qalb) and spirit (ruh) both do this in unison (ittifaq). Or sometimes three! Or sometimes four!
Only for the Sufis with the Muhammadan friendness, all their subtle centers may journey in unison.
However, what had been described before [i.e. six subtle centers are brought together and journey in unison] is the most complete and perfect [way to journey. And that method] has been reserved for [the Sufis who are to realize] the Muhammadan friendness (walayat-i muhammadi) (slm). Other than that, other [methods of journey happen] for other types of friendness [e.g. Abrahamic friendness, Mosaic friendness.]
The six subtle centers may jouney more.
These six subtle centers (lata’if) may separate from the body, reach the station of holiness (maqam-i quddus), may become colored (talawwun) by its color and then they may return to the mold. And they may establish a connection (ta`alliq) [to the mold] that is beyond the connection of love. And they may accept the rule of the mold.
And if his subtle centers do make that journey, the sufi realizes abidingness.
And after [such] distinction [for his subtle centers, the sufi] experiences a sort of annihilation (fana`) and become like dead [i.e. his old spiritual-self dies]. At that time, [the sufi is] illuminated by an elect self-disclosure (tajalli-i khass). And he starts living a new life. And he realizes the station of abidingness in Allah (maqam-i baqa bi-‘Llah). And he attains the character (akhlaq) of Allah.
Then the sufi may progress to one of these two possibilities --- either he may attain the capability to teach others or he may not.
In conclusion, the Mujaddid says,
All these are stories of the beginning and the end (bidayat, nihayat) that has been told in insinuations and allusions (ramz, ishara). It is not possible to comprehend that save cutting through these waystations.
Peace to them who follow guidance and take up the emulation (mutaba`at) of the ‘chosen one’ [who is Prophet Muhammad] (slm).
Haqq (SWT) has spoken only one utterance (kalam) from the beginning of eternity until the end of eternity (azal ta abad). That utterance cannot be partitioned or subdivided. For it’s not possible for Him (SWT) to be silent or to be dumb.
The surprising matter is that from the beginning of eternity until the end of eternity, there is only a moment in that place [which is the realm of God.] Time does not flow over Him (SWT). Within one moment, what can be spoken but one one-in-all utterance that cannot be subdivided (kalam-i wahid-i basit)?
This single utterance has become
That one one-in-all utterance has become the origin of so many types of [individual] utterances [each] in the context of multiple ta`alliqs or “relationships”.
For example, if it has a ta`alliq of commandingness (ma`m ur), then a command originates. Or if it has a ta`alliq of prohibitingness (manhi), then it is called a prohibition (nihi). Or if it has a ta`alliq of news-givingness (ikhbar), then it becomes news. In short, [that God speaks on not only the news of the present, but also] the news on the past and the future ― that throws people into confusion.
The priority and posteriority of the ‘turner [of time]’ [God] (dal) indicates the priority and posteriority of the ‘things that are turned [or put in sequence in that linear time]’ (madlul). It is not something hard to understand! It is so because the past and the future are special qualifiers (sifat-i makhsus’-i dal) with which the ‘turner [of time]’ qualifies [or puts into sequence the events in that linear time. And He qualifies the events] in that moment that has been stretched (inbisat) [from a wholistic one-in-all model of time into a linear model of time stretching from the beginning of eternity to the end of eternity.]
And in the view of the ‘things that are turned [sequentially in that linear time] (madlul)’, since that moment [when God speaks] is unchanged and it [that timeless moment] has not been stretched out (inbisat) [to create a linear time as it has been stretched out in the mundane, temporal realm], then there is no past or future there [in that timeless moment when God speaks.]
Now the Mujaddid gives an analogy to illustrate
The philosophers say, “The essence (mahiya) of a thing may have a distinct and separate (`alihadeh) [characteristic] with respect to [that thing’s] external existence (wujud-i khariji). [However, the essence] may not have that [same characteristic] with respect to [that thing’s] mental existence (wujud-i dhihni).”
[So we see that] a thing can have contradictions it its qualities and inseparable qualifications (tabayin-i sifat va lawajim) with respect to its existence and it-ness (huwiyat).
And we also see that] the ‘turner [of time]’ and the “things that are turned [sequentially in that linear time]’ are [already] truly separate from one another (dal va madlul keh fi’l haqiqat az yek digar juda’ and).
Therefore, they are also permitted [to differ in their qualities and inseparable qualifications] as in the previous [illustration].
Infinitesimally small period of time
What has been told is that it is only a moment from the beginning of eternity to the end of eternity. And that [they have said one moment] is due to the insufficiency of the language (tangi-i `ibarat). Actually, we may not even say “one moment”. [That time period is so infinitesimally short that] to call it even a moment would be hard.
You should know that among those contingent beings who have realized the station of nearness (qurb) of the Divinity (ilahi) (SWT), those ones who have [realized the highest level of nearness, they would] step their feet outside the circle of contingentness (dai’ira’-i imkan). And there they would find the beginningless beginning and the endless end (azal va abad) unified (muttahid) together.
While on his stations of ascent (maqamat-i `uruj) on the night of heavenly ascension (miraj), Hazrat [Muhammad] the seal of the messengers (slm) found Hazrat Jonah in the belly of the fish. And he found the storm of Hazrat Noah taking place. (slm) And he saw the people of paradise in the paradise and the people of hell in hell. He found five hundred years [of earthly time] equal to half a day after entering the paradise. [The Prophet] saw a rich companion named Abdur Rahman ibn Auf entering paradise late, so Hazrat Prophet asked him the reason for coming late and he gave news of his own trials and tribulations (`aqibat va mihn) [that he suffered on the way]. He [the prophet]) saw all that in one moment ¾there was neither past nor future.
Through the grace of [Prophet Muhammad] the friend of the Haqq (sal), I have experienced such “states” (i.e., unveilings and mystic visions) once in a while. [In one those mystic visions,] I [the Mujaddid] saw the angels prostrating before Adam (slm) and at that time their heads were not raised from the prostration. I saw the angels of the [highest paradise] `illiyin not performing these prostrations, they were not ordered to prostate. In my vision, they were absorbed [in seeing that. All these past events as well as] all the happenings (ahwal) that will happen in the last world, they were all seen in that same [one single all-inclusive] moment.
GET some from the book Faith practice piety
You should understand that the Prophet (slm) had attained this state [of heavenly ascension (miraj)] both bodily and spiritually (jasadi, ruhi). And he witnessed [all that he witnessed in that heavenly ascension] through both his own eyes and through inner eyes (basr va basirat).
There were others [who were highly God-realized sufi masters or friends of Allah and they experienced ascents (`uruj) that were a sort of heavenly ascension and they experienced them] via the intermediation [of Prophet Muhammad.] And this state [of ascent] came to their hands as they faithfully followed [the Prophet]. (be-tariq-i tab`iyat). However, all others [but the Prophet, i.e. the friends of Allah see them] spiritually only ― not through bodily eyes (basirat).
The caravan where my friend is
I know that but I can't go there
????????So his songs
?????????I want to hear from here
Dar qafila`I keh ust danam tarsam
In biskeh rasad ze dur bang-i jarsam
Allah give him [Prophet Muhammad] and his progeny the most complete and perfect salutations and peace!
The predominant Ashari school of kalam considers the attribute of engenderingness to be an additional attribute.
Engendering or bringing things into engendered existence (takwin) is a real attribute (sifat-i haqiqiya) of the Necessary Existence. The followers of Imam Abul Hasan al-Ashari regard engenderingness to be an “additional attribute” (sifat-i idhafiya). They consider the attributes of powerfulness (qudrat) and desiringness (iradat) to be all that is needed for bringing the cosmos into existence (ijad).
In contrast, the Mujaddid rules that engenderingness is a real attribute that is separate from powerfulness and desiringness. And he explains why it is so.
Actually, engenderingness is a separate real attribute (sifat-i haqiqiy-i `alihadeh) in addition to powerfulness and desiringness.
Its clarification is that the attribute of powerfulness [enables one either] to do an action or not to do that action. [These two options] are both right whereas desiringness (irada) means deciding on one of the two options for power i.e. either doing it or not doing it. Therefore, the rank of powerfulness is above the rank of desiringness.
The rank of engenderingness that they [the Maturidis] consider to be a real attribute is below the rank of powerfulness and desiringness. The task for this attribute [of engenderingness] is to bring that object into existence about which [the attribute of desiringness] has already decided that it would come to existence.
Powerfulness (qudrat) fixes (musahhih) His action [i.e. decide what can be done]; desiringness (irada) specifies the action (mukhassis) [i.e. decides if that fixed action will or will not occur at all] and engenderingness brings that action into existence (mawjid). Therefore, we have no alternative but to accept engenderingness [as a separate attribute].
How things are created: The Mujaddidi view
For what action that attribute is needed
1 Supreme level
fixes (musahhih-i fa`al) His action [i.e. decide what can be done]
2 Middle level
Specifies the action (mukhassis-i fa`al) [i.e. decides if that fixed action will or will not occur at all]
3 Low level
brings that action into existence (mawjid-i fa`al)
The Mujaddid explains engenderingness by drawing an analogy with the concept of the capability to perform the action (istat`at ma`a ‘l-fa`al).
For example, the analogy of [engenderingness] is the “capability to perform the action” (istat`at ma`a ‘l-fa`al), which the Sunni ulama have established to be in human beings. There is no doubt that [God creates] this capability [to perform the action] after [God has exercised] both [His attributes of] powerfulness (qudrat) and desiringness (irada). And the realization of bringing something into engendered existence (tahaqquq-i ijad) depends on this capability. [That is, this capability enables man to make or do something.] Instead, that capability [to perform the action] necessitates the action [of bringing something into existence. That is, when God gives man the capability to perform the action, He also makes man perform the action.] Not doing the action is not possible then [when God has already given man the capability to perform the action].
Now the Mujaddid discusses engenderingness, which is after both powerfulness and desiringess. God’s attribute of engenderingness necessarily creates that what God has chosen employing His attribute of desiringness. But this is not obligation.
The state of the attribute of engenderingness (takwin) is the same in that “bringing into engendered existence” (ijad) necessarily must be there (be-tariq-i ijab). However, this obligation (ijab) [to engender whatever that God has chosen after employing His choice of desiringness] does not create any defect within the Necessary. It is because it [this obligation] is exercised (thubut) after the realization of [the attribute of] powerfulness (qudrat) i.e. [after God has decided] whether the action will be done or left undone; and the attribute of desiringness (irada) has made the choice (takhsis) [between those two choices].
Now the Mujaddid contrasts his opinion with the opinion of the philosophers of the faylasuf tradition and Ibn Arabi. They proposed obligation (ijab). That is, God is obligated to create whatever has been pre-destined to be created and vice versa.
And [my position] contradicts what the sages of philosophy have proposed. They regard the first choice [i.e. the choice to do it] as necessarily true and regard the second choice [i.e. the choice not to do it] as impossible to be true. They also deny [the attribute of] desiringness (irada). According to them, it is clear obligation (sarih dar ijab). [That is, they propose that God is obligated to create what is destined to be created, whether He dersires to create it or not to create it is immaterial.]
Allah the almighty and exalted soars higher than this! On the other hand, an obligation (ijabi) that is found after connecting to desire and determining one of the two choices (ta`alliq-i iradat va takhsis ahad al-maqdurin) [i.e. that what the Mujaddid has proposed] corroborates free will; it does not deny free will.
The unveiling of [Ibn Arabi,] the author of Futuhat, also agrees with the sages [i.e. the philosophers.] On the matter of powerfulness (qudrat), they consider the first condition (shartiya) [that God will create that what has been pre-destined to be created] to be necessarily true and the second condition [God will not create it] to be impossible to be true. However, this proposition [of Ibn Arabi and the sages] supports obligation (ijab). [That is, God is obligated to create whatever has been pre-destined to be created and vice versa]. And as a result desiringness (irada) has no function because God does not have to specify one of the two choices [between creating the thing and not creating that thing].
The Mujaddid proposes that
If we establish that engenderingness is obligated (ijab) to engender [whatever God Himself has chosen via His attributes of powerfulness and desiringness] then by that interpretation, God is free from even a taint of obligation.
This difference is very fine and no one before me has explained it. The Maturidi ulama have accepted this attribute [of engenderingness as a real attribute] but they have not discussed this fine point. Among all the scholars of the kalam (mutakallimun), Maturidis are the only ones who have been honored with this knowledge because they follow the illuminated sunna of the “chosen one” [Prophet Muhammad] meticulously. I also follow these great masters [that are the Maturidis.]
Allah (SWT) keep us steadfast on their true articles of faith by the grace of the prince of the prophets [Hazrat Muhammad]. The most complete and perfect peace and blessings be on him.
The Mujaddid affirms the mainstream Sunni creed that the faithful (mu’min) will see Allah (SWT) in the last world.
That the faithful (mu’min) will see Allah (SWT) in the last world is true. This is a matter that except the mainstream Sunni community, none of the sects of Islam or the sages of philosophy allows it. The others deny because they equate the unseen (ghayb) to the seen (shahid). And that is erroneous.
When the object that is seen is “without what manner” and “without how” (bechun va becheguneh) [i.e. unqualifiable] then that vision would also be “without what manner” and “without how” (bechun va becheguneh) [i.e. unqualifiable]. You should believe (iman) in it but you should not spend a lot of time pondering (mashgul) on its nature (kayfiyat).
Presently, this mystery has been revealed before the elect of the friends (khass-i awliya). Whatsoever they [the elect of the friends] see, although that may not be the true vision [of God] (ru’iyat), it is still some sort of vision. As the hadith says, “As if you are seeing Him [ka-annaka tarahu]”.
P 72, l 1
The Mujaddid describes the nature of that vision.
In the future, [in the day of last judgement], all the faithful will see Allah (SWT) with their own eyes but they will not perceive Him. Just like it says in the Koran, Eyes will not be able to understand Him [la-tudrikuhu ‘l-absaru]. (Koran 6:103)
However, they will only attain two things,
These two things will be with (lawazim) the vision. And except these two, all other things will be gone.
This is a most abstruse (aghmadi) point in kalam. The rational method is unable to prove or conceptualize (taswir) it. The ulama and sufis (`alim va sufi) who follow (mutaba`an) the prophets have found it through the light of the perspicacity (nur-i firasat) attained from the light of prophetness (nur-i nubuwat). And they have found it along with the other matters of kalam that reason is incapable or bewildered in establishing. The Sunni ulama have only the light of the perspicacity (nur-i firasat). But the sufis [who are alims in adiition to being sufis] attain unveiling and witnessing (kashf va shuhud) along with the light of the perspicacity (nur-i firasat).
Note: Only the Sufis who are also alims attain both kashf va shuhud as well as nur-i firasat. The Sufis who are not alims at all do not attain nur-i firasat. That is what the Mujaddid explained in his writings.
The Mujaddid explains the concept of perspicacity. First, he
explains the difference between unveiling and perspicacity.
The difference between unveiling and perspicacity (kashf va firasat) is just like the difference between estimation and sense perception (haddasiyat va hissiyat). Perspicacity (firasat) transforms concrete things (nazariyat) into estimated things (haddasiyat) and unveiling (kashf) in turn transforms those [estimated things] into things perceived by senses (hissiyat).
All the other matters where the Sunni community contradicts the rationalists (keh iltizam-i tur-i `aql) ― they are also similar. They [the ulama of the Sunni community] have known it through the light of perspicacity (nur-i firasat) and witnessed it through true inspiration (kashf-i sahih).
If the [ulama try to] explain those matters clearly (idah) then they would only be able to conceptualize those [matters] and make [people] aware (taswir va tanbih), they will not be able to establish [those matters] via consideration and proof (nazar va dalil). It is because rational consideration (nazar-i `aql) is blind in establishing or conceptualizing those [matters.]
I am surprised at those ulama! Those ulama think that they will establish those matters via arguments (istidlal) and overwhelm the opposition. However, they will fail. Instead, their opposition will think that just as their arguments (istidlalat) are weak and faulty, their decisions are also weak and faulty.
As an example, the Sunni ulama have established on "being capable of action (istata`at ma`a ‘l-fa`al)”. [For them,] the light of perspicacity and true unveiling (nur-i firasat va kashf-i sahih) have established this true proposition. However, the evidences and proofs that they have brought are weak and incomplete.
Their strongest evidence in support of that matter is that the accidents in two points in time does not subsist (`adam-i baqa-iy i`rad ast dar du zaman). It is because if accident subsists [in time] then that necessitates that accident subsists by accident [instead of by substance] and that is impossible.
The opposing party has considered this evidence weak and incomplete and so they have firmly held the belief (yaqin) that that proposition is also faulty. But they have not understood that the belief [of the Sunni ulama] in this matter, as well as in the other similar matters ― [all those beliefs] have been derived by the light of perspicacity (nur-i firasat) from the light of prophetness (nur-i nubuwat).
But it is our weakness that for consideration by the opposing party, we propose estimation and vision (haddsi va badihi) as a concrete proof (nazari). And we even try to establish it [that alleged proof] through elaborate insincere arguments (takalluf).
Its result will be that the opposing party will not accept our estimation and vision as proofs. In that case we have nothing else to do except to propagate these ideas and bring them before others. Those with the nature of a good Muslim will accept it blindly. On the other hand, those who do not have that good fortune in their lot will deny it.
Paki 73, -7
The Mujaddid teaches us on the the exalted rank of the Maturidi school of the dogmatic theology. The more dominant school is the Ashari school but the Mujaddid followed the Maturidi school himself.
How superior are the followers of Shaykh al-islam Abu Mansur Maturidi among the ulama of the Sunni community! They have considered it enough only to describe the purposes (maqasid). And they have carefully distanced themselves from fine philosophical debates.
Among the ulama of the mainstream Sunni community, Shaykh Abul Hasan al-Ashari is the first one to deliver his propositions with fine philosophical arguments. He sought to establish the creed of the Sunni community through philosophical arguments.
It is daunting task and it makes the opposing party more ambitious. As a result, they ridicule the leaders of the religion and leave the path of the [pious] predecessors (salf).
Allah (SWT) keep us steadfast on the decided decisions of the people of truth, which are from the lights of the prophetness on whose owner be the most perfect and complete peace and blessings.
On matters of kalam or dogmatic theology, the Mujaddid’s beliefs are in accordance to the creed of the Sunnis. He believes in it with a firm certitude much firmer than the certitude with which he believes in the existence of the sun and the moon!
God has commanded, Propagate the blessings of your Lord [wa amma bi-ni`mati rabbika fa-haddith] (Koran 93:11) And so I am describing this great blessing.
My creed on the matters of the science of Islamic dogma or kalam (mu`taqadat kalamiya’) is identical to the creed of the “people of truth” [.e. the mainstream Sunni community]. I believe this creed in such a firm certitude (yaqin) that when I compare that certitude to the certitude that I have on self-evident (badihiya) matters, [that certitude on self-evident matters seem to be so weak] that it seems like a uncertain matter, or instead a dream (zann, wahm).
As an example, when I compare the certitude that I have received from every matter of kalam with the certitude that I have regarding the existence of the sun then the certitude of the second type [that is on the existence of the sun] pales before the certitude of the first type [that is on the matters of
It does not matter whether the rational people (arbab-i `aqul) accept my saying or not, indeed I think that they will not accept it. It is because this debate is beyond method of rational consideration.
What's the mystery? The Mujaddid explains that the belief in the heart on the matters of the faith comes to him directly from the Haqq as inspiration. On the other hand, the belief on the existence of the sun and the moon comes to his heart indirectly. At first his organs of perception gather the knowledge and then transmit it to the heart. And the belief that he gains directly in his heart from the Haqq is much stronger than the belief that he gains indirectly in his heart through his organs of perception.
The real meaning of this affair is this. Certitude is a matter of the heart. The certitude, for example, that is attained regarding the existence of the sun is attained through the sense organs. These organs are like spies who gather information in various ways and transmit to the heart. [These sensory organs are] like spies [who collect information and transmit to the authority whi.] On the other hand, the certitude that is regarding any of the matters of the science of kalam, the heart attains it [directly] without the intermediation of any one [of the sense organs. And the heart] receives it as an inspiration (ilham) from God as a transmission (talaqqi) [directly without any intermediary.]
Therefore, the first type of certitude is the knowledge of certitude (`ilm al-yaqin), and the second type of certitude is the vision of certitude (`ain al-yaqin). There is a great difference between these two levels; [the first level, knowledge of certitude is far stronger than the second level, vison of certitude.] Like a poet have written,
Does hearing resemble seeing?
Shanideh ki bud manand dideh?
When the sufi aspirant is free of all desires except Allah, he attains God-realization.
When by pure divine grace the inner realm of the breast of the sufi aspirant (sahat-i sina’-i u) becomes empty of all wishes (maradat) and he wishes nothing but Haqq (SWT) then at that time he receives those things that he sought (maqsud) at the time of his creation [i.e. he receives God-realization.] Then he becomes capable of real worship (haqiqat-i bandegi). Then if God so desires, He sends him back [to the world, as a sufi guide] to nurture the imperfect beings (tarbiyat-i naqisan) [to God-realization].
At the time of God-realization, God gives him back desiringness which he had lost before during his annihilation in Allah.
At that time, Allah (SWT) gives him desiringness (irada) as well as free-will (ikhtiar) so that he becomes free and independent (mukhtar va majaz) in both words and deeds. It is like when a slave has been so permitted, [he attains freedom in his words and deeds].
And he molds his character in the character of Allah.
This station is where one molds one's character in the "character of Allah” (takhalluq be-akhlaq Allah). Whatsoever that the possessor of the desire (iradat) wants on this station he wants it for the others. And his aim (manzur) is others affairs (masalih) [i.e. to help others], not his own affair. Just like it is the state of the desire of the Necessary [in that that God needs no help from anyone even Himself, His sole aim is to help his creation]. Verily Allah has the most sublime analogies.
However, the desires of the God-realized sufi are not always met.
It is neither mandatory nor permitted (lajim, ja`ij) that whatever that the desirer desires will be fulfilled. If it were, it would be tantamount to taking [the desirer as a] partner to Allah (shirk) and incompatiable to his being a worshipper to Allah.
Hazrat Haqq (SWT) has said to his own beloved [Prophet Muhammad] (slm), You will not be able to guide him whom you love. Allah guides him whomever He wants [innaka la tahdi man ahbabtu wa lakinna ‘Llaha yahdi man yasha`u] (Koran 28:57). When the desires of the prince of men [Prophet Muhammad] (slm), may not be fulfilled then what can be said about [the desires of] the others?
And God may not like all the desires of the God-realized sufi.
It is also not necessary that Haqq (SWT) would like every desire of the desires. Had it been so, then Allah (SWT) would not have objected to some of the words and deeds of that master [Prophet Muhammad] (slm). Like Allah (SWT) have said, It was not appropriate for the prophet [ma kana li-nabiyyin] (Koran 3:161) He is not forgiven in this verse. After that Allah (SWT) said, Allah has forgiven you (`afa ‘Llahu `anka) (Koran 9:43). Forgiveness comes only after a fault. [So that verse implies that the prophet must have made a fault.]
God does not even like all His own desires, let alone all the desires of the God-realized sufi.
At the same time, it should also be remembered that all the desires of Haqq (SWT) is not to His liking e.g. lack of faith and sin (kufri va ma`asi).
For example, only when God desires so, a man may lose faith or fall into sin. That does not mean that God like that. This is an abstruse point in kalam that would need more detailed discussions to understand.
Note: It is because God desires these. Else these actions would not even exist and people would not even do them. As God has stated, “Allah (SWT) does not like lack of faith (kufri) from His servants. (Koran)So when the desire of Allah may not be to His liking then the desires of the servant may not be to the liking of God.
We may learn about God only through divine revelation.
My leader (imam) on this deed (kar) [of wayfaring on the sufi path or suluk] is the word of Allah (kalam Allah). And in this context, my guide (pir) is the noble Koran. Had the Koran not guiding (hidayat) us, we would not have discovered the method of worshipping the true god (ma`bud-i haqq).
Every fleck [of dust] however small it may be (latif-i altaf) on this path cries out "I am Allah". And it beckons every traveller (rawanda) on this path to his worship (parast). That fleck of dust, if it can be qualified with “how, chun”, then it shows itself in the form of “without how, bi-chun”. And if it is similar (tashbiya’) [to the worldly things] then it becomes resplendant in the shape (hi’at) of incomparability [like God is]. Here, contingent things are interwined (mutamazzaj) with the Necessary (wujub). And newly-originatedness and primordialness (huduth, qidam) are sown together by the same string. If it is false (batil) then it shows in the form of truth (surat-i haqq). And if it is misguidance (dalalat) then it appears in the shape of good-guidance (shakl-i hidayat).
As a result, the wayfarer (salik) attains the characteristics of a blind traveller (musafir) who turns his face towards everything saying, This is my Lord (h aza rabbi) (Koran 6:77). The Haqq (SWT) praises himself by referring to Himself as the creator of the heavens and the earth (khaliqu ‘l-samawati wa ‘l-ardi) and the lord of the east and the west (rabbu ‘l-mashriqi wa ‘l-maghribi) (Koran 26:28).
In my ascent (`uruj), all these attributes [that are fitting only to God almighty] were presented before the imaginary idols (aliha’i mutakhayyila’), and they [those imaginary idols] were forced (be-ikhtiyar) to reject (aba) [the claim that they possessed those lordly attributes]. And those [imaginary idols] set down [below the horizon to oblivion].
Consequently, I turned my face away from those [imaginary idols] saying, I do not love them who set down below the horizon (la uhibbu ‘l-afilin) (Koran 6:76). And I made the person of the Necessary Existence (dhat-i wajib al-wujud) my sole object of attention (qibla’-i tawajju’).
All praise is to Allah who has guided us towards it. Had He not guided us, we would not be guided. Verily the messengers of our Lord came with the truth. (Laqad ja`at rusulu rabbuna bi ‘l-haqqi) (Koran 7:43).
The Mujaddid speaks on his belief on his guide Hazrat Baqibillah.
There were four people who had more intimate attachments (mulazama) to our Khwaja [Hazrat Baqibillah] than the rest of my sufi brothers. I was one of them. Each of us had a unique belief on Hazrat Khwaja, and a unique inter-action (mu`amala) with him. [That is, each of us held a unique belief regarding Hazrat Khwaja and in turn he produced a unique hal in each of us.]
I firmly believed that the likeness of such companionship and gathering (suhbat, ijtima`), and the resemblances of such nurturing and and good-guidance-giving (tarbiyat, irshad) have never appeared after the time of our master [Prophert Muhammad] (slm).And I used to express my gratefulness to Allah that although I was not honored by the honor of the companionship of the Best of Men [Prophet Muhammad] (slm), still I was not deprived of an instance of the felicity of this companionship [of Khwaja Baqibillah].
Hazrat Khwaja used to say like this about the states of the other three, “That man recognizes that I can make others perfect (sahib-i takmil) but does not consider me capable to give good-guidance (sahib-i irshad). And to him the level of guidance-giving (irshad) is higher than the level of perfection (kamalat)." And about that man, he said, "He does not maintain any relationship with me at all." About another man he used to say: "He denies me." And whatever that we received was proportionate to our beliefs.
The Mujaddid re-iterates the traditional sufi belief that in order to advance, the disciple should hold the belef that his guide is the most capable, blessed and perfect guide that there is. And the disciple should love the guide for being so. And this bondage of love becomes the channell through which the disciple (murid) receives energy or benefit (fayda) from his teacher.
You should know that the disciple's (murid) belief about his pir’s superiority and perfection (afdaliyat va akmaliyat) is the result of “love” (mahabbat) and the consequence of the relationship (munasabat) [that he has with the pir.] And that is the occasion (sabab) of benefiting (ifada va istifada) from the pir.]
p 71 para 2 l 3
But none should rank his pir higher (fadilat) than them whose greatness (bozorgi va `azimat) has been determined by the sharia. It is because that would be excessive (ifrat) veneration which is bad.
The Shias show excessive (ifrat) veneration only to the family of Prophet Muhammad (ahl-i bayat) and that is their fault. The Christians, due to an excessive veneration, have made Jesus (slm) the son of Allah and as a result they have faced endloss loss.
However, it is permissible if someone gives a higher rank [to his sufi guide] except these [masters whose higher rank has been determined in the sharia.] Instead, it is incumbent (wajib) [for a sufi to do so in order to advance] in the tariqa [or the sufi path].
Now To give such higher rank (fadilat) is not according to the disciple's own volition; instead if the disciple is capable then such a belief appears spontaneously in his mind and through the medium (wasila) of such belief he attains the perfections of his sufi teacher (pir). However, if giving such a higher rank is according to the disciple's own volition and he tries to create such a belief against his true belief then it is not acceptable and he gains no benefit by it.
The Mujaddid teaches us on the zikr of negation and affirmation. The first part of it is that we should negate everything.
The supreme degree (daraja’i `aliya) in the [zikr of] negation and affirmation (nafi va ithbat) by the “pleasant verse” (kalima’I tayyab) la ilaha illa ‘Llah (there is none worthy of worship but Allah) is this ― that you negate everything. Whatsoever comes before you in vision, intellect, unveiling and witnessing (did, danish, kashf, shuhud), all that may be sheerly pure and absolutely ineffable. Notwithstanding that, you should include that under the la [no].
And the second part is that we should do this zikr by the heart, not verbally.
And with respect to the affirmation (ithbat) you will have to say (takallam) the exceptional verse (la ilaha illa ‘Llah) which comes out in the homesteads of the heart (qalb). There should be nothing there in addition to it.
You can't hunt the phoenix
O hunter! Pick up your net
Whosoever puts out a net hoping to catch the phoenix,
He returns home empty handed
Anqa shikar kasi nashod va dam baz chin
ke-inja hamisheh bad be-dast ast dam ra
Peace be on them who follow guidance and take up on emulation of the Chosen One. Peace and blessings be on him and his progeny.
The Mujaddid comments on the relative positions of the Muhammadan reality vis-à-vis the reality of the Koran and the reality of the Divine Kaaba.
The reality of the Koran (haqiqat-i qur’ani) and the reality of the Divine Kaaba (haqiqat-i ka`ba’i rabbani) are above the Muhammadan reality (haqiqat-i muhammadi). Therefore the reality of the Koran (haqiqat-i Koran) has become the leader (imam) of the reality of Muhammad (haqiqat-i muhammadi) [on their manifestations be salutation, peace and benediction]. And the the reality of the Divine Kaaba (haqiqat-i ka`ba-i rabbani) has become the place where the reality of Muhammad prostrates (masjud). Along with it, the reality of the Divine Kaaba is above the reality of the Koran (haqiqat-i qur’ani).
The reality of the Divine Kaaba is in the station that is right above the attributes, modes and colors i.e. the realm of God the undifferentiated one-and-allness (wahidiyat).
There everything is without any attribute or color (bi-sifati va bi-rangi). Modes and “crossing-overs” (shu’un va i`tibarat) are irrelevant there. And making incomparable and sanctification (tanzih va taqdis) have no place in that Blessed Presence.
The relative positions of the realities
Reality of the Kaaba
Reality of the Koran
There everything is such
That they cannot be spoken about
Anja hameh an ast
Keh barter ze bayan ast
This is a gnostic idea (ma`rifat) on which none among the people of Allah has ever opened their lips. Nor have they given any hint or allusion.
However, I have been honored with this knowledge and I have been distinguished before all my peers.
All these, I have received as alms from the Beloved of Allah and by the grace of the messenger of Allah! The most perfect and complete salutation and peace be on him!
Here the Mujaddid reveals a unique insight of his on the relative positions of the reality of Muhammad, the reality of Ahmad and the reality of Kaaba.
You should know that just as the form of Kaaba (surat-i kaba) is that before which the forms of everything prostrates, the reality of Kaaba (haqiqat-i kaba) is that before which all their realities prostrate.
Now I shall tell you a wondrous thing that none has ever heard before or none has ever told before. By his grace and munificence, Allah (SWT) has notified this to me via inspiration (ilham).
Ths Mujaddid teaches us on the excellences of the pleasant verse.
If the pleasant verse (kalmia-i tayyiba), La ilaha illaAllah "There is no god except Allah!” did not exist then who would guide us towards Holy Being of God (SWT)? Who would unveil the veil from the face of tawhid, the belief that there is only God? Who would open the doors to the paradise?
The sword of la, the negation cuts off numerous human attributes. And by the blessing of the repetition of this negation (nafi) makes countless objects related to the world vanish. The part of negation (nafi) in that [verse i.e. la] destroys those false gods. And the part of affirmation [i.e illa ‘Llah] affirms that true God.
By its assistance, the wayfarer cuts through the contingent degrees (madarij-i imkani). And by its grace (barakat), the gnostic climbs (irtiqa) the stations from where he ascends to the Necessary (ma`arij-i wujubi).
It is this verse that takes man from the self-disclosure of the acts (tajalliyat-i af`al) to the self-disclosure of the attributes (tajalliyat-i sifat). And then takes from the self-disclosure of the attributes (tajalliyat-i sifat) to the self-disclosure of the person (tajalliyat-i dhat).
When the broom of “la” won’t sweep the road
Then how can you reach the home of “illa ‘Llah”
Peace to them who follow guidance and firmly follow the chosen one [Prophet Muhammad]. The most perfect and complete peace and salutation be on him and his progeny!
There are maktubs on this topic in the maktubat Vol III.
The Mujaddid comments on master Sharfuddin Yahya Maniri’s opinion that the “two suras seeking refuge” i.e. Sura Falaq and Sura Nas should not be recited in salats within the minimum amount of Koranic recitation that is obligatory.
First, he quotes master Sharfuddin prohibiting such recitation.
Master Sharfuddin Yahya Maniri (qs) has written in his Maktubat that the “two suras seeking refuge” (mu`awwidhatayn) [i.e. Sura Falaq and Sura Nas] should not be recited in obligatory (fardh) salat. It is because Hazrat Ibn Mas'ud (ra) had an opinion that is contrary to the majority [of the ulama, his opinion was that those two suras are not really parts of the Koran.]. Therefore, he opined that we should not include these [two suras] in the minimum amount of Koranic recitation that is obligatory (fardh) in salat.
Then he discusses his own vision on it.
[Following him,] I also did not recite these two suras in salat. Then I saw once [in a dream or mystic vision] that the two suras seeking refuge (mu`awwidhatayn) are before me and they are complaining about Master [Shaykh Sharfuddin Maniri], “Why did he take us out of the Koran?”
From that time onwards, I started to violate that prohibition and recite these two suras within the [minimum] recitation (qirat) in obligatory prayers (fardh). And whenever, I recited these two Koranic suras in obligatory [prayers], I entered a state where I used to see amazing mystic visions (ahwal-i 1ajiba mushahadah).
Then the Mujaddid gives his reasons for disbelieving Shaykh Sharfuddin’s proposition.
The truth is that from the viewpoint of the science of the sharia, there is no bar to reciting these two suras seeking refugein obligatory prayers (fardh). [The reasons are,]
[In conclusion,] in no way is there a problem to recite those two suras after Suratu ‘l-Fatiha. I surprised at the great shaykh [Sharfuddin] in this opinion! All of it is surprising!
Note: Technically, even Shaykh Maniri’s opinion was that those two suras could be recited, he only proposed that if you do recite those two sura after Suratu ‘l-Fatiha in the first two cycle of an obligatory (fardh) prayer, you should recite a few more verses from the Qur’an. It’s because for obligatory prayers, it is incumbent (wajib) to recite a minimum amount from the Koran after Sura Fatiha.
Salutation and peace be on the prince of man and his pious progeny!
The Mujaddid teaches us on the virtues of taqlid, following the tradition.
He has an abundant share of the tariqa of the Sufis, instead from the Islamic community (millat-i Islam) who possesses the fitrat, habit of taqlid, following the authority of the predecessors and the innate disposition (jibilla) of imitation (mutaba’at) abundantly.
Here the principal of affairs (madarikar) is taqlid. Taqlid of the prophets (slm) elevates one to lofty levels. (darajat) and imitation of the sufis brings one to the greatest station of ascent (to be blast off on a high ascent or `uruj.).
Hadrat Abu Bakr the truthful (may the Haqq be pleased on him) is greatly endowed with this habit (fitrat). And because of this, he accepted the prophetness [of Hazrat Muhammad] (slm) without any delay and became the leader among the truthful (siddiqun). On the other hand, the accursed Abu Jahl could not favor himself with that good fortune because he lacked the qualities of taqlid and imitation (mutaba`at). As a result, he became the leader of the accursed.
The perfection that a disciple (murid) attains is through the emulation of his own pir or guide. A pir’s error is better than the disciple’s correct practice. It is because of this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) used to desire to be the error of Hazrat Prophet (slm) and used to say: "How I wish that I could be the error of Muhammad?” (slm)
Hazrat Prophet [Muhammad] (slm) said about Hazrat Bilal (R): "The sin of Bilal is shin to the Haqq." Hazrat Bilal was a native of Ethiopia where Arabic was not the mother-tongue and so used to mis-pronounce ash-hadu as as-hadu during the prayer call (adhan) and the Haqq accepted it as ash-hadu. Therefore, this fault of Hazrat Bilal is better than other's correct pronunciation. Like a poet has written:
Bilal's wrong pronunciation as-hadu
Ridicules your correct pronunciation ash-hadu
I have heard it from a friend that the supplications (du`a) that is suggested by the Sufi shaykhs, if a shaykh makes a mistake in them and his followers continue to recite the supplications with that mistake in them, in the same way that the shaykh used to recite, then that [supplication] would have results. But if that [supplication] is recited correctly, then there would be no result.
May the Haqq (SWT) keep us steadfast on doing taqlid of the prophets, imitating (mutaba`at) the friends of God (awliya) and may He grant us the good fortune of perfect taqlid of the Prophet (slm).
Here, the Mujaddid ranks the major prophets. First in rank is Prophet Muhammad.
Hazrat Muhammad the messenger of Allah (slm) is the noblest of all prophets (mursalin), on him and on them be salutation and peace. How can I even compare him with the rest of the human beings [who are not prophets]? Hazrat Jesus and Moses (slm) have received their share from the station of the self-disclosure of the person (tajalli-i dhat) in commensurate to their level and preparedness (al-martabati wa ‘l-isti`dadi). Allah (SWT) stated to Hazrat Moses (slm), I have selected you for myself. (Wa ‘stana`tuka li-nafsi) (Koran 20:41) i.e. my person (dhati). And Hazrat Jesus (slm) is the spirit of Allah (ruhu ‘Llah) and the word of Allah (kalam-i u). There is a deep inter-relationship between him [Jesus] and that master (sarwar) [Muhammad].
Second in rank is Hazrat Abraham.
While Hazrat Abraham (slm) possesses the station of the self-disclosure of divine attributes (tajalli-i sifat), still he also possesses a keen sight (hadid al-basar). Hazrat Abraham (slm) also attained that elect condition () that our own prophet attained on the station of the self-disclosure of the person of God (maqam-i tajalli-i dhat), although there were differences in preparedness (isti`dad) between them. Therefore, on this measure, he is superior to Hazrat Jesus and Hazrat Moses (slm).
Third in rank is Hazrat Jesus and fourth is Hazrat Moses.
After that, Hazrat Jesus is superior to Hazrat Moses and his level (rutba) is above Hazrat Moses. He had keen perception (hadid al-basar).
77, last line
Fifth in rank is Hazrat Noah.
After these masters is Hazrat Noah. And the station of Hazrat Noah (slm) that is on the station of [the self-disclosure of] the attributes (maqam-i sifat) ― it is higher than the station of Hazrat Abraham (slm).
However, still Hazrat Abraham has a unique rank (shan-i khwass) and a keen sight (huddat-i basar) on that station that no one else has. And his [Hazrat Abraham’s] blessed progeny have a share from this station due to emulation and compliance to the rules (tabi`yat va fari`yat).
Note: The “blessed progeny” of Hazrat Abraham refers to his spiritual descendants i. e. the Abrahamic community.
Sixth in rank is Hazrat Adam.
The rank of Hazrat Adam (slm) is after Hazrat Noah (slm).
Allah gives peace and blessings to our prophet and all other prophets. My Lord (Rabb) has taught this to me and has inspired (ilham) this to by His grace and generousity (fadl va karam). Allah (SWT) possesses the true knowledge!
The Prophets and their Ranks
Should astof be left side
IA: my made-up words commandingness ,prohibitingness leave them as they are they are Chittickians!
Should be hadha rabbi
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