The Origin and the Return

Mabda’ va Maad

Translation and Annotation

Draft

Started in 1994; some more done in 2002; More done on 2007 and more being done in 2008,9

In the name of the Allah the All-Merciful and the Compassionate.

By divine assistance! And grace from the All-Merciful!

The Sermon (Khutba)

I praise Allah in the beginning and in the end and give peace (salli) to His beloved (haibibihi) Muhammad and his noble (amjad) progeny.

Now this is a noble monograph (risalatun sharifatun) containing (mutadamminatun) subtle allusions glowing with (isharatin latifatin ra’iqatin) superlative subtle secrets (asrarin daqiqatin fa’iqatin). It is from a magnanimous imam (imam al-humami) who is the argument of Allah to the human race, (hujjati ‘llahi ‘l-anami) the exemplar to the poles and the pegs (qudwati ‘l-aqtabi wa ‘l-awtadi), the qibla of the substitutes and the solitaries (qiblati ‘l-abdali wa ‘l-afradi), the unveiler of the mysteries of the “seven oft-repeated verses” (kashifi asrari ‘l-sabi ‘l-mathani), Hazrat Mujaddid of the Second Thousand Years, the one whose transmission (nisbat) is wuwaisi or without inter-mediation, the “Rahmani,” the knower of the Lord (al-arif al-Rabbani), the shaykh of Islam and the Muslims, our shaykh and our Imam AHMAD al-Faruqi who is Faruqi in physical lineage, Hanafi in school of law and Naqshbandi in [sufi] affiliation (mashraban).

May the suns of his good-guidance-giving do not cease to shine brilliantly (satiatan) on the horizon! And may the people benefit from religious exercises that he [prescribed] (riyadi ifadatihi) abundantly (ra’iatan)!

Allah is the only one to turn for help (mustaan) and it is on Him that we depend (tuklan).

Minha 1

The Attraction and the Wayfaring

In the vision that is in this chapter, the Mujaddid describes his mystic visions regarding his wayfaring along his sufi path. The Great Mujaddid writes about how he started his sufi training in the Naqshbandi tariqa from Khwaja Baqibillah.

When I had experienced the desire for this path, divine grace (inaya) made me reach (rasaandam, mirasanam= to cause to reach) one among the caliphs (khalifa) of the family of the Hazrat Khwajas (hadrat-i khwajaha) (qs) {XE “Khwajegan” \f “names”} [or the Naqshbandi masters]. I learned the tariqa of these masters from him [i.e. Khwaja Baqibillah]XE "Baqibillah, Khwaja" and tenaciously clung to his companionship (suhbat).

Khawajas, khwajegan:

tariqa, caliph (khalifa):

Companionship (suhbat): it means to be around a master and receiving energy from him. Attaining companionship of the teacher is especially critical for students in the Naqshbandi tariqa. For this Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi tariqa is the sunna tariqa ― it strictly follows the sunna. Companions of the Prophet are the greater than the greatest friends of Allah (awlia’) and they realized their sublime station only via the companionship of the Prophet. Through the bondage of love and affection they nurtured with the prophet, they attained energy and blessings abundantly. In the same way, the aspirants in the Naqshbandi tariqa attain all the benefit that they receive via the companionship of their teacher.

Now the Mujaddid starts to describe his initial sufi journeys (sa’ir).

Journey (sing. sa’ir, pl. sa’irat): define

First, he attains the Naqshbandi attraction.

Through the blessing of the face-turning (barakat-i tawajjuh-i) of that master, I attained the attraction (jadhdhba) from God that the Khwajas [or the Naqshbandi masters experienced and instituted in their tariqa] (jadhdhba’i khwajaha). [That attraction] rose up to the attribute of qayyumiyat on the station of annihilation (keh dar sifat-i qayyumiyat az jaht-i istihlak mikhizad). And I drank the elixir to my satisfaction from this [Naqshbandi] tariqa where the end has been inserted in the beginning. When I realized this [Naqshbandi] attraction, my wayfaring (suluk) came to a conclusion (qarar).

Face-turning (tawajjuh):

qayyumiyat:

dar sifat-i qayyumiyat az jaht-i istihlak:

indiraj-i nihayat fi ‘l-bidayat: lit. “insertion of the end in the beginning”, a unique feature of the Naqshbandi tariqa is

that the end has been inserted in the beginning. In the other tariqas, suluk comes before jadhdhba. Here, suluk means ??????

In contrast, in the Naqshbandi tariqa, jadhdhba comes before suluk

?????????

Second, the Mujaddid reaches the end of his road by the spiritual assistance from Hazrat Ali. That is, the Mujaddid ascends upto the point that was his own origin of entification (mabda’-i taayyun).

By the spiritual nurturing (tarbiyat-i ruhaniyat) of [Hazrat Ali] the conquering lion of Allah (may Allah brighten his face), I reached the end i.e. upto the divine name that is my lord [or my origin of entification, mabda’-i taayyun].

lord, origin of entification (mabda’-i taayyun):

From that name, I ascended to (uruj) [the station of] “supreme receptivity” (qabiliyat-i ula), which is another name for the Muhammadan reality (haqiqat-i muhammadi) (س). [And I ascended there] by the spiritual assistance from Hazrat Khwaja [Bahauddin] Naqshband (qs). {XE “Naqshbandd, Khwaja Bahauddin” \f “names”}

Fourth, the Mujaddid soars above the station of Muhammadan reality by the intermediation of Hazrat Umar Faruq.

From that place, I soared (istila) above that [supreme] receptivity (qabiliyat) by [the spiritual assistance from] the “master craftsman of spirituality” (dastgir-i ruhaniyat) Hazrat [Umar] Faruq (daad).

Fifth, the Mujaddid reaches to the station of the Muhammadan poles by the spiritual intermediation of the Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (sin) and Khwaja Alauddin Attar.

And threreon, [I ascended] to a station that is above that [older station of supreme] receptivity (qabiliyat).

And he learns that this new station, which is more beautiful than the older station of supreme receptivity, is the gist or undifferentiation (ijmal) of the older station of supreme receptivity.

Indeed [I found that] that [previous station of supreme] receptivity had been a differentiation of this [new higher] station [where I am now, which is right above the older station of supreme receptivity]. And that [new higher] station was more beautiful than that [older lower station of supreme receptivity.] (an qabiliyat ka ‘l-tafsil ast ― mar an maqam ra ― va an maqam ajmal-i ust).

And the Mujaddid learns that the name of this new station is the station of the Muhammadan poles.

That [new] station [that is right above the station of supreme receptivity] is the station of the Muhammadan poles (aqtab-i muhammadiya). I progressed (taraqqi) by the spiritual nurturing (be-tarbiyat-i ruhaniyat) from [Hazrat Muhammad] the seal of the messengers (salam). And while arriving (be-waqt-i wusul) on this station, I received the spiritual assistance (madad az ruhaniyat) of Hazrat Khwaja Alauddin Attar {XE “Attar, Khwaja Alauddin” \f “names”} who was a caliph of Hazrat Khwaja Naqshband (qs) {XE “Naqshband, Khwaja Bahauddin” \f “names”} and the pole of good-guidance-giving (qutb-i irshad) [of his time].

This station is the highest point that to which the poles ascend. The circle of shadow (da’ira-i zilliyat) ends after having reached this very station. [And right above it lies the circle of prototypeness, the realm of God].

Peace to them who follow guidance! Wa ‘l-salamu ala man ittabaa ‘l-huda!

Pole (sing. qutb, pl. aqtab): Pole is a highly exalted friend of God who is the source of energy and blessings in his locality. The Mujaddid follows Ibn Arabi in his concept of the pole. In the Maktubat, he quotes Ibn Arabi to say that there is a pole in most cities and locality. It is through the intermediation of the poles that all guidance and good-instruction-giving continues. The head of all the poles of the world is the pole of good-instruction-giving (qutb-i irshad), he is concerned with the spread of religious guidance to the people of the world. Lower in rank is the pole of worldly activities (qutb-i madar) who is concerned with the worldly matters like determining who will wield political power, what would be the state of the economy etc. Under them, there are many other poles doing the work.

Solitary (sing. fard, pl. afrad) refers to highly gifted Sufis who attain the ultimate nearness of God. Their eyes are focused towards God only, not at all towards the creation. They are called solitaries as they are not under any pole (qutb), instead they receive the energy and blessings directly from God without any pole’s intermediation.

Sixth, the Mujaddid comments on the next station which is the station of the prototype commingled with the shadow. Only solitaries and a few elect poles who are companions to the solitaries may enter here.

After then starts the station of [that which is the] pure prototype or the commingling of [the prototype and] the shadow (asl-i khalis ya mumtazaj be-zill).

It is the solitaries (afrad) who deserve to attain this felicity.

However, some of the poles (aqtab) ascend (uruj) to this commingled station (maqam-i mumtazaj) as a result of the companionship (musuhabat) of the solitaries (afrad). And they observe (nazir) the prototype commingled with the shadow.

Nevertheless, only the solitaries may reach the pure prototype (asl-i khalis) or [even proceed far enough so that they are able to] observe that [pure prototype] and differentiate (tafawat) between its degrees (darajat). [Even those few elect poles who proceed far enough so that they may observe the prototype commingled with the shadow, even those elect poles may not proceed to this station and so they may not observe the pure prototype.]

This is the bounty of Allah. He gives whomever whatsoever He pleases! And Allah possesses magnificent bounties! (Dhalika fadlu ‘llahi yu’tihi mayyasha’u wa ‘Llahu dhu ‘l-fadli ‘l-azim.) (Koran 62:4)

When I had reached (usul) the station, which is the station of the poles (maqam-i aqtab), [Pophet Muhammad,] master of the religion and the world (salam) graced me with the ceremonial robe (khilat) of the pole of good-instruction-giving (qutb-i irshad) and honored (sarfaraz) me with this post.

After that, by divine grace (SWT), I was included in his state [i.e. I shared the same benediction that were being given to the Prophet Muhammad].

The Mujaddid traverses many lofty stations and finally reached the station of the prototype commingled with the shadows.

And from that place, I turned my face upwards [and progressed even higher]. And one time, I reached the prototype that was commingled [with the shadows]. And I attained a kind of annihilation and a kind of abidingness (fana’-i va baqa’-i) there [on this station] like it happened in the previous station

Seventh, the Mujaddid is elevated to the prototype station.

From that place, I was granted elevation to the prototype (asl) stations.

Eighth, the Mujaddid reaches the loftiest station which is the station of the prototype of the prototype.

And [finally] I reached the prototype of the prototype (asl al-asl). In this last ascent (uruj-i akhir), which is the ascent to the prototype stations, I had the spiritual assistance (madad az ruhaniyat) from Hazrat the Great Succour [Ghauth ‘l-Azam] Muhyiyuddin Shaykh Abdul Qadir [Jilani] (qs). By his miraculous powers (be-quwwat-i tasarruf), he made me traverse this station. [Finally, he] took me to the prototype of the prototypes.

Then the Mujaddid started his descent back to the earthly realm.

And then he brought me back again at the prototype (asl al-asl va asl gardanidand). From that place, I was brought back to the world.  As a result, all the [previous] stations started coming back.

 Stages of the ascent of the Mujaddid Stage what the Mujaddid experienced on that stage By whose spiritual intermediation? 1 attains the Naqshbandi attraction Khwaja Baqibillah 2 reaches the end of the Mujaddid’s path upto the divine name, which is his origin of entification Hazrat Ali 3 reaches the supreme receptivity or the Muhammadan reality Khwaja Bahauddin Naqshband 4 soars above the Muhammadan reality Hazrat Umar Faruq 5 reaches the station of the Muhammadan poles, which is the last station of shadowness AND Prophet Muhammad grants the Mujaddid the post of the pole of good-instruction-giving Hazrat Muhammad, Khwaja Alauddin Attar 6 reaches the station of the solitaries where prototype is commingled with the shadow; some poles may ascend here due to their companionship of the solitaries 7 reaches the prototype (that is exclusive to the solitaries) Hazrat Ghauth-i Azam Muhyi ‘l-din Shaykh Abdu ‘l-Qadir Jilani 8 reaches the prototype of the prototype (that is also exclusive to the solitaries) as above

page 5 p 2 l 9

The Transmission of Solitariness

The Mujaddid describes the account of him attaining a supremely sublime transmission called the transmission of solitariness (nisbat-i fardiyat) that is unique to the solitaries (afrad).

From my father, I attained the transmission of solitariness, nisbat-i fardiyat, which is specific to the [station of the] last ascent (uruj).  My father in turn had attained it from an exalted man (aziz) [Qadri sufi saint Hazrat Shah Kamal Kaithali (qs)] who possessed powerful attraction (jadhdhba) and was famous for his miracles (khawa’riq). However, due to my own weak perception (basirat) and a weak display of that transmission, I did not discover that transmission before I had completed the waystations of the wayfaring (manazil-i suluk) [and had attained an initial level of perfection on the sufi path]. Indeed, I even did not at all know that I had that [transmission of solitariness].

Shah Kamal Kaithali: Qadri sufi saint from Kaithal which was in the vicinity of Sirhind. He experienced strong attraction (jadhdhba) and he often used to roam around that area in an intoxicated (madhdhub) state. He was the sufi teacher of the Mujaddid’s father in the Qadri tariqa, and the Mujaddid in turn received his Qadri transmission (nisbat) from his father.

And the Mujaddid receives the capability to perform supererogatory prayers from his father.

And also, I attained the capability of performing supererogatory worship (tawfiq-i ibadat-i nafila), specificaly the ordination (ijazat) to perform supererogatory prayers (salawatin nafila), by the assistance from my father [Shaykh Abdul Ahad (qs)]. And my esteemed father attained this felicity [of performing supererogatory worship] from his own shaykh [Hazrat Shaykh Abdul Quddus Ganguhi (qs)], who was in the Chishti silsila.

Note: The Mujaddid’s father was Shaykh Abdul Ahad. His shaykh in the Chishti silsila was Hazrat Shaykh Abdul Quddus Ganguhi (ra). It was from Hazrat Adbul Quddus who gave Hazrat Abdul Ahad the ordination (ijazat) to perform supererogatory prayers.

Ordination (ijazat): Its sufi meaning is that when the disciple is given a formal permission or ordination from a master, that establishes a channel via which energy transmits from the master to the disciple. That is, Hazrat Mujaddid was ordained, he started to receive energy in his supererogatory prayers though the intermediation of his father and his teachers.

Other-worldly Knowledge

page 6 para 2

The Mujaddid gives an account of his receiving other-worldly or God-given knowledge. First, he was receiving that knowledge via the spiritual medium of Hazrat Khidr.

Also, I attained other-worldly knowledge (ulum-i ladunni) via the spirituality (ruhaniyat) [or spiritual assistance or medium] of Hazrat Khidr (slm). However, [it was only] until the time that I passed the station of the poles (aqtab) [that I was attaining knowledge via that method.]

Second, after he ascended beyond the station of the poles, the Mujaddid started to receive knowledge from God spontaneously within himself without any intermediation.

Afterwards, I crossed over (ubur) that station and progressed (taraqqiyat) to exalted stations [that are even higher]. Then I started to attain knowledge through myself (haqiqat-i khod) [spontaneously]. Or I started to attain knowledge [spontaneously] within myself, by myself, from myself (dar khod, be-khod, az khod). Then I strongly continued to attain knowledge spontaneously. [lit., nothing else had an opportunity to come in-between.]

The Descent

page 6 para 3

The Mujaddid describes his descent from Allah back to the world of empirical things (alam-i khalq). He crossed over the stations of the imams or founders of the other sufi silsilas and they gave the Mujaddid the gists of their own transmissions. That confirms the Mujaddidi belief that the Mujaddidi transmission includes the transmissions of all the other tariqas.

Also, during the time of the descent (nuzul), which is known as the ‘journey from Allah into Allah (sayr ani-‘Llah bi-‘Llah), I crossed over the stations of the shaykhs of the other silsilas and I acquired abundant shares from all the stations. The shaykhs of those stations promoted and helped me. And they granted me portions (nasibi arzan dashtan) from the gists of their own transmissions (khulasa-ha-i nisbat-i khish).

First, the Mujaddid traverses the Chishti station.

First, I crossed over the station of the great ones (akabir) of the Chishti tariqa (qs) and attained an abundant share from that station. I earned through, among these great shaykhs, through the spirituality (ruhaniyat) [meaning spiritual energy or fayd] of Hazrat Khwaja Qutbuddin [Bakhtiyar Kaki] (ra) more than through the others. The truth is that he has a high standing in that station. And he is the leader of that station.

Second, the Mujaddid traverses the Qubrawi station.

Second, I traversed the stations of the great ones (akabir) of the Qubrawi tariqa (qs).

The Mujaddid explains the inter-relationship between the Chishti and Qubrawi stations.

With respect to the ascent (uruj), both of these two, [Chishti and Qubrawi] stations, are equal. However, during the time of the descent (nuzul) from above, that [Qubrawi] station is on the right side of the royal road (shahi rah). And the first station [which is the Chishti station] is on the left side of that straight path (sirat-i mustaqim).

And he explains the mystery of the royal road that stands between these two stations. Only poles may travel on this royal road while the solitaries have a different road to travel.

And this royal road is such a road via which some of the great poles of good-instruction-giving (qutb-i irshad) go to the station of solitariness (fardiyat) and reach the end of the ends (nihayat ‘l-nihaya). The path of the solitaries (afrad) is different [than that royal road].

None but a pole may traverse on this path [which is the royal road, also called the staright path]. This station [of solitariness] is between the station of the attributes and this royal road.

During the ascent, both of these stations are equal but during the descent, the Qubrawi station is on the right side of this royal road while the Chishti station is on the left.

It is like that it [this royal road] is the isthmus (barzakh) between these two stations [the Chishti and the Qubrawi stations], and it profits [by receiving energy and blessing, fayd va barakat] from both two sides.

And the first station [that is the Chishti station] is on the other side of that royal road, that [Chishti station] has only a weak relationship (munasibat) with the [station of the] attributes.

Third, the Mujaddid traverses the Suhrawardi station.

After that, I crossed over the stations of the great ones of the Suhrawardi tariqa whose leader was Shaykh Shihabuddin [Suhrawardi] (qs). This station is bright with the light of following the sunna and adorned by the light of witnessing (mushahida) that what is beyond of the beyond (fawqa ‘l-fawqa).

Having the good fortune of being able to [perform supererogatory] worship is associated with that station. There are some wayfarers (salik) who have not yet reached [this Suhrawardi station] but are absorbed in supererogatory worship, and they find comfort in that [supererogatory worship].  Even they attain a share of that [Suhrawardi] station due to their relationship with this station [which they have created by performing supererogatory worship which is a primary characteristic of the Suhrawirdiya tariqa.]

Truly, supererogatory worship is appropriate for [those sufis who have reached] that [Suhrawardi] station. The others [who perform supererogatory worship but did not reach the Suhrawardi station] ― regardless of whether they are beginners (mubtadi) or those who have completed their sufi path and reached the end (muntahi) ― [attain a share of this Suhrawardi station] due to their relationship with this station [which they have created by performing supererogatory worship.]

That [Suhrawardi] station is really amazing! Those lights (nuraniyat) that are witnessed on this station cannot be found on the other stations. As they perfectly follow [the sunna of the Prophet Muhammad who is] the “greatest honor” (azim al-shan), the shaykhs of this [Suhrawardi] station are highly honored; and they were honored by the sufi shaykhs of the other tariqas of that time[1]. And the Suhrawardi masters attained a high level on this Suhrawardi station ― a level so high that the sufi shaykhs of the other tariqas did not attain that high level on their tariqa’s stations, even when the their tariqa’s stations were higher stations in their ascents (uruj).[2]

Fourth, the Mujaddid descends to the station of attraction.

Then I descended onto the station of attraction (jadhdhba). This station brings together (jami) stations of countless attractions (jamii maqamat-i jadhdhbat).

Fifth, the Mujaddid descends to the lowest station, which is the station of the heart or all-comprehensive reality.

From there, I descended even lower. The end of the levels (maratib) of descent is the station of the heart, which is the all-comprehensive reality (haqiqat-i jamia). The responsibility of good-instruction-giving and perfection-giving (irshad va takmil) is related to the descent to this station. [At last,] I descended to this station.

 Mujaddid’s Descent Stage Where does he descend to 1 Station of the Chishti great ones 2 Station of the Qubrawi great ones 3 Station of the Suhrawardi great ones 4 Station of attraction 5 Station of the heart or all-comprehensive reality

Now having made his final descent, the Mujaddid ascends again, he ascends to an even higher place than he ascended the last time, but this time he becomes stable.

Before I became stable (tamkin) on this station, I ascended (uruj) [again]. This time I left the prototype (asl) behind me just as I left the shadow (zill) behind me. In this ascent (uruj) ― which took place on the station of the heart ― I attained stability (tamkin).

 Mujaddid’s Final Ascent After the Descent Stage where does he ascend to Final Above and beyond the prototype stations (i.e. the station of the prototype and the station of the prototype of the prototype)

It mabe useful hereo describe the

 Sufi Journeys Sequence Type of Journey 1 (initial) ascent towards God 2 (middle) descent to the created beings 3 (final) Final ascent towards God

Minha 2

The Pole of Good-instruction-giving

The Mujaddid describes a supreme type of pole of good-instruction-giving (qutb-i irshad) i.e. a pole of good-instruction-giving (qutb-i irshad) who also possesses all the perfections of solitariness (jami kamalat-i fardiyat).

Such a pole of good-instruction-giving (qutb-i irshad) ― who also possesses all the perfections of solitariness (jami kamalat-i fardiyat) ― is definitely the exalted of existence (aziz al-wujud). [It is only] after many (besiyar) centuries and countless (beshumar) ages that such a jewel (gawhar-i) appears (bi-zuhur mi-ayad).

The light of his emergence (nur-i zuhur-i u) illuminates the darkened cosmos (alam-i zulmani) and the light of his good-instruction-giving (irshad) and good-guidance-giving towards God (hidayat-i u) shines over (shamil) the entire cosmos.

From the expanse of the heavens (muhit-i arsh) to the center of the earth (markaz-i farsh), whosoever realizes well-instructedness to follow the path of God (rushd) or receives good-guidance towards God (hidayat), faith (iman) or knowledge on God (marifat), he attains them only on the path of [that pole] (ra) and realizes benefit only from [that pole]. Without the intermediation, (bi-twasti u) of that shaykh [who is that pole], no one can attain this felicity.

Now the Mujaddid gives an analogy to illustrate the extraordinary Godliness and good-instruction-giving of that exalted pole.

Its analogy (mathalan) is this ― the light of his good-instruction-giving encircles the entire world like an all-encompassing sea (darya-i muhit) and that sea seems to be frozen (munjmad) and truly still (aslan harkat nadarad). For the aspirant who is face-turned (mutawajjuh) towards that master and has sincerity (ikhlas) towards that master, or a aspirant towards whom that master has the state of being face-turned (mutawajjuh-i hal) ― a small window (ruzn-i) seems to open up (kushadeh mishod) in the heart of the aspirant during the time of the face-turning. And on that path, according to the measure of face-turning [on part of that master] and sincere intention (ikhlas) towards that sea [-like master on the part of the aspirant], his [the aspirant’s] thirst is quenched and he becomes satisfied (sirab).

The Mujaddid explains that the intermediation of that pole is essential in order to reach God.

In the same way, a person who is absorbed (mutawajjuh) in the zikr of God (ilahi) but is not face-turned towards that exalted master because he does not know [that exalted man], not that he denies [that exalted man] ― in such a case he will obtain the same measure of benefit from that [exalted man]. However, [the benefit that he will receive will be] more in the first situation [when he is attentive to that master] than in the second situation [when he is inattentive to that master but it is because he does not know that master].

Now whosoever denies that master (bozorg) or on whom that master is dissatisfied, however much is he absorbed in the zikr of God (SWT), still he will be deprived (mahrum) of the reality of well-instructedness (rushd) and well-guidedness (hidayat). Likewise, that denial of that master will form barriers (sadd) on his path of receiving energy (fayd). Even when that exalted man does not wish him not to receive any benefit (ifada) or does not intend (qasd) him harm (dar), he will not have any true guidance (haqiqat-i hidayat), instead only the outer form of guidance (surat-i rushd). Form without meaning has only little benefit.

The people who have sincerity (ikhlas) and love (mahabbat) for that exalted man ― even though they may not have his face-turning (tawajjuh) and they may not be immersed in the zikr of God (ilahi) (SWT) ― still then, because of that love and nothing but that love (mujarrad-i mahabbat), they will receive the light of guidance (rushd, hidayat).

Peace to them who follow guidance  (Wa ‘l-salamu ala mani ttabaa ‘l-huda).

The Station of Perfection-giving

The Mujaddid describes stations of perfection that lead to the “station of perfection-giving” (maqam al-takmil).

At first, [on the first station,] the door (dar) that opened up to me had the desire to receive (dhawq-i yaft) but not the receipt [itself]. Secondly, [on the second station], the receipt was obtained but the desire to receive disappeared. And thirdly, [on the third station], the receipt also disappeared in the color of the desire to receive.

And the state of the second [station, where the receipt was obtained but the desire to receive disappeared] is the state of perfection and “arrival” onto the level (darajatu) of elect friendness (walayat-i khassa).

And the third station [where both receipt and the desire to receive vanishes] is the station of the completion of the perfection (maqam al-takmil) or the station of returning to the creation [i.e. the people] for invitation (dawat).

The sufi who has experienced attraction from God (jadhdhba) and has made the effort and completed the step-by-step journey in the structured sufi path (suluk), only he may realize the second or the third station. The attracted (madhdhub) who has not done the step-by-step journey (suluk) may only realize the first station.

The previous state (hal) [which is the state of the first station] is being perfect in attraction (jadhdhba) only.

However, when [step-by-step differentiated] wayfaring (suluk) is contained in (indamma) [the sufi’s journey on the sufi path] and the wayfarer (salik) completes his attainment of the states [of the first station] then [he advances to the next step, which is] the second station and then [he advances further to the third and the last step, which is] the third station.

However, the attracted (madhdhub) who has not done the [step-by-step detailed differentiated] wayfaring (suluk) truly does not have any share from the states (halat) of the second or the third station.

The Mujaddid explains that the sufi aspirant should seek to become someone who is both at attracted-wayfarer and a wayfarer-attracted at the same time. Only then he can become both perfect himelf and at the same time able to bring others to perfection.

Therefore he who has realized perfection [for himself] and has also attained the ability to make others perfect (kamilu ‘l-mukammilu), he is an attracted-wayfarer (madhdhubu ‘l-saliku). Then he is a wayfarer-attracted (saliku ‘l-madhdhubu). If he has not attained both of those two [states of attracted-wayfarer and wayfarer-attracted], then he is truly neither perfect (kamil) [himself] nor is he a perfection-giver (mukammil) [to others]. So do not become [contented by only becoming] one among those incompetent people [who are neither perfect themselves nor can make others perfect. But instead, you should strive to progress higher than them and become an advanced God-realized sufi who can do both that.]

May peace and blessings be on our master Muhammad who is the most exalted of men and on his pure progeny!

 The Stations of Perfection Sequence Level the station of method of reaching 1 Low the desire to receive (dhawq-i yaft) but not the receipt [itself]. jadhdhba only 2 Medium the receipt was obtained but the desire to receive disappeared perfection and “arrival” onto the level (darajatu) of elect friendness (walayat-i khassa). wayfaring (suluk) is it’s integral part (indamma) and the wayfarer (salik) completes his attainment of the states [and realizes perfection] 3 Supreme And thirdly, the receipt also disappeared in the color of the longing for receipt (dhawq-i yaft) the completion of the perfection (maqam al-takmil) or the station of returning to the creation [i.e. the people] for invitation (dawat). A more perfect case of the previous station

Minha 4

The Naqshbandi Transmission

The Mujaddid alludes to his meeting with his shaykh Khwaja Baqibillah. He attains the initial grade of the Naqshbandi transmission or nisbat-i naqshbandi.

At the last part of the Islamic month of Rabiyu ‘l-Akhir, I met an exalted man (aziz) who was a caliph (khalifa) of this family of [Naqshbandi] masters. And I was honored by this event. And I took the tariqa of these masters [from him].

And in the middle of the Islamic month of Rajab of that year, I was graced by the presence of the Naqshbandi tariqa (hudur-i tariqa-i naqshbandi), which was on that homestead of insertion of the end in the beginning [indiraj-i nihayat dar bidayat]. That exalted man said, “The Naqshbandi transmission (nisbat-i naqshbandi) is a name for this presence (hudur) [of the heart].”

Now the Mujaddid is alluding to his more advanced stages, when his Naqshbandi transmission grew to maturity.

After a full ten years and several months elapsed, [a new event started to happen] in the first part of the Islamic month of Dhi ‘l-Qada. In the initial and the intermediate [periods of time in the Mujaddid’s initial sufi wayfaring, suluk], that end which is in the beginning (nihayati keh dar bidayat) [meaning the Naqshbandi transmission], used to shine behind numerous veils. [And finally, that end] pierced the veils and disclosed itself with clarity and appeared with certainty (mutajalli gast va be-yaqin pivst).

Then the Mujaddid had a clear understanding that the matured Naqshbandi transmission is vastly superior to his initial transmission.

How different [are the initial and final forms of the Naqshbandi transmission]! Initially it [the Naqshbandi transmission] was an outer form (surat) and finally it became this name (ism)! Initially it was a blurred shape (shabh) and finally it became a distinct shape (paikar)! Initially it was a name and finally it became the one who is named (musamma)!

[Having reached this station,] the reality (haqiqat) of the action here was unveiled and the secrets of this inter-action of this matter became clear. He who has not tasted cannot realize [man lam yazuqu lam yadurru].

May salutations and peace be on [Prophet Muhammad] the noblest one in the human race, his noble-hearted family and his exalted companions (wa ‘l- salawatu wa ‘l-salamu ala sayyidi ‘l-anami wa alihi ‘l-karami wa ashabihi ‘l-izami).

Minha 5

The Granting of Blessings

A Mujaddidi belief is all adherents of this tariqa are elects of God who will be forgiven in the day of the last judgement and enter paradise without any judgement. This incident from the life of the Mujaddid is a source of that belief.

Spread the word about the blissful gifts (niyamat) of your Lord  (Wa Amma bi-nimati rabbika fahaddith). (Koran 93:11)

One day, I was sitting with my sufi brothers (yar) in a group. And I was meditating on my defects. This condition pre-dominated me in such a degree that I found myself completely unconnected with this situation [of being an aspirant of Allah. That is, I found myself so full of faults that I thought that I’m not good enough to be even a sufi aspirant of Allah.] At that instance, the saying, "Whosoever lowers himself in order to please Allah, Allah raises his honor. Man tawadaa liLlahi rafaahu ‘Llahu." ― it raised me, [the Mujaddid who is] this poor humble man, up from this humiliating position.

Then this “calling” (nida’) started to reverbrate in my inner realm, "I forgive you and I also forgive everyone who, up until the day of resurrection, will gain access (tawassul) to Me through you, be it with intermediarie(s) in-between or without. Ghafartu laka wa li-man tawassalabika ilayya bi-wasitatin aw bi-ghayri wasitatin ila yawmi ‘l-qiyamati." This meaning started to reverbrate again and again until I no longer doubted [that it was an inspiration from God.]

Praise be on Exalted Allah for this! This [gift] is plentiful and pleasant! It is blessed itself and it blesses the recipient! Allah! Send peace and blessings on Your messenger and our master Muhammad and his progeny. At last, I was ordered [by God via ilham, inspiration] to disclose this incident.

If the emperor comes to the door of the old woman
Khwaja! Don't pull out your moustache [in anger!]

Agar padishah bar dar-i pir-i zan

Verily your Lord is very forgiving. [Inna rabbaka wasiu ‘l-maghfirati] (Koran 53:32)

Minha 6

Journey towards Allah

The Mujaddid describes his journey towards Allah or sayr ila ‘llah.

explain origin of entification??????/

Journey towards Allah (sayr ila ‘llah) is the name for the journey (sayr) upto that name (ism) among all the names (asma) of God (ilahi), which is the origin of entification (mabda’-i taayyun) for that wayfarer (salik).

Journey in Allah (sayr fi ‘llah) is the name for the journey (sayr) in that name (ism) of Allah, which ends in the one-in-number person of God (hadrati ‘l-dhati ‘l-ahadiyat) who is beyond (mujarrad) even a hint of the names, attributes, modes and crossing-overs (itibari ‘l-asma’i wa ‘l-sifati wa ‘l-shuyuni wa ‘l-itibarati).

This explanation will be correct only then when the blessed name (ism) Allah will refer to that level of Necessaryness (wujub) that will bring together (mustajam) the names and the attributes (asma va sifat). However, if the blessed name (ism-i mubarak) Allah refers only to the pure person (dhat-i bahat) then the journey in Allah (sayr fi-Llah) will be considered to be within the journey towards Allah in Allah (sayr illaLlah bi-‘Llah).

Journey from Allah in Allah

And he also describes his journey from Allah in Allah, sayr aniLlah bi-‘Llah.

This journey [i.e. the journey from Allah in Allah, sayr ani-‘Llah bi-‘Llah] is within the pure person (dhat-i bahat), and so it cannot be conceived in the end-point of the end of the ends (nuqta’i nihayat al-nihayat). After reaching that endpoint (nuqta’), [the sufi] does not stop there. Instead, he returns to the cosmos (alam). So [this journey] is called the journey from Allah in Allah , sayr ani ‘Llah bi-‘Llah.  This [is such a deep] knowledge (marifat) that it is reserved who have “arrived on” the end of the ends. Except for me, no friend (wali) of Allah has spoken on this knowledge.

Allah elects for Himself whomever He wants. All praise belongs to Allah who is the lord of the world. Allah give peace and blessings to the most exalted prophet (sayyidu ‘l-mursalin) Muhammad and his entire progeny..

Pure person (dhat-i bahat): This term refers to the “person” (dhat) of Allah devoid of any attributes (sifat). In the Mujaddidi tariqa, we concentrate on the person of Allah, instead of any of His attributes.

Minha 7

The Perfection of Friendness

The Mujaddid describes the five degrees on the station of the perfection of the friendness (sayr-i kamalat-i walayat).

In the journey (sayr) on the [station of] perfection of friendness (sayr-i kamalat-i walayat), there are different steps (aqdam). There are many who have the preparedness (istidad) to attain only one degree (darajat) from the many degrees of friendness (walayat). There are some who have the preparedness to attain two degrees. And another group has the preparedness for three degrees. Yet another group has the receptivity (qabiliyat) for four degrees. Still, there are some who are prepared (mustaid) for five degrees but they are few in number.

Of these five degrees, attaining the first degree is related to the self-disclosure of the acts (tajalli-i af'al). The second degree depends on the self-disclosure of the attributes (tajalli-i sifat). The other three degrees are related to the self-disclosures of the person (tajalliyat-i dhatiya) which has many degrees.

Many of my compatriots in the path are related to the third degree, among the previously-mentioned degrees. And a few are related to the fourth degree. Even fewer are related to the fifth degree and that is the last one of the degrees of friendness (darajat-i walayat).

The perfection that I declare to possess (mutabir) is beyond these degrees. After the time of the honored companions (sahaba-i qiram) (daad), this perfection (kamalat) has not been manifested. And that perfection is beyond the perfections of attraction and progression (jadhdhba va suluk). Allah willing! In the future, this perfection (kamalat) will be manifested in Hazrat Imam Mahdi.

Allah gives peace and blessings to Prophet Muhammad who is the best of creation.

 The Degrees of Friendness Degree That to which that degree of friendness is related Who has this degree 1 self-disclosure of the acts Many 2 self-disclosure of the attributes some 3 self-disclosure of the person Few 4 As above Fewer 5 As above even fewer Beyond all degrees In the past, the companions, at that time the Mujaddid and in the future Imam Mahdi

Preparedness and receptivity: Preparedness (istidad) refers to the ability of something or “preparedness” to realize advancement on the path of God-realization. The related term receptivity (qabiliyat) refers to the ability of something to “receive” advancement.

Minha 8

The Perfection of the Descent

The Mujaddid explains that the higher the sufi ascends in his ascent to God, the lower he descends in his descent back to the created realm. Sufi’s journey in his path of God-realization has two segments:

1. the sufis ascent towards God (uruj)

2. the sufi’s descent from God back to the created realm (nuzul)

Ascent is where the sufi wayfarer ascends towards God in his quest for God-realization. And descent is when the sufi descends to humanity in order to guide them towards God.

During the time of the [the sufi’s descent or nuzul, which is his] return backward (ruju-i qahqari), [from Allah,] he [the sufi] who has arrived on (waslan-i) the end of the end, descends to the ultimate limit [i.e. the lowest point] of the low points (sufl-i ghayat). And when he descends to the ultimate limit of the ultimate limits (ghayat al-ghayat) [or the lowest of the low points], he confirms that he has “arrived on” the end of the end.

When the sufi indeed reaches the lowest of the low points i.e. the end of the ends (nihayat al-nihayat), he no longer employs miracles at all. Instead, he employs worldly means exclusively. In the Maktubat-i Imam-i Rabbani, the Mujaddid explains that the reason the Great Succour Abdul-qadir Jilani showed so many miracles is that because in his descent (nuzul), he only descended upto the subtle center of spirit (ruh), instead of the heart.

When this descent (nuzul) with this distinction (khususiyat) takes place [i.e. when the sufi descends to the lowest of the low points], the returned person (sahib-i ruju), in all his totality (bi-kulliyat-i khod) turns his face towards the world of occasions (alam-i asbab). It is not that a part of [the returned person] is face-turned (mutawajjuh) towards Being of Haqq (SWT) and another part is face-turned towards the creation (khalq). [Instead, the returned person turns his face totally towards the created things, exclusively employs them as worldly occasions and do not at all expect miracles to take place.] Indeed, [if he would employ miracles instead of worldly occasions] that would be a sign that he has failed to arrive on the end of the end (nihayat al-nihayat) and to descend to the lowest point of the low points (ghayat al-ghayat).

The Mujaddid now explains a mystery on prayer (salat) and the subtle centers. During prayer, the subtle centers of the worshipper are face-turned towards God. For the obligatory (fard) or sunna salat, it is all the six subtle centers of the sufi, or during the supererogatory prayer, it is the super-arcanum (akhfa) that is face-turned. When he finishes the prayer, those subtle centers turn their faces towards the created things.

This is the summary of this chapter: “Prayer is the station from where the person of faith ascends in his heavenly ascension (maarij). And at the time of the performance of the prayer (namaz), the subtle centers (lata’if) of the returned sufi (sahib-i ruju) [who has completed his journey to Allah (sayr fi ‘l-Lah) and then completed his return to the creation (??????????) to give them guidance] are deeply face-turned (tawajjuh-i khwass) towards the holy person of God (SWT). And it ends when he comes out of the prayer. As soon as he finishes his prayer (salat), he becomes totally face-turned (mutawajjah) towards the created things. However, when he performs an obligatory (fardh) or sunna prayer, his six subtle centers (lata’if-i sitta) becomes face-turned (mutawajjah) towards the holy person of God (SWT). And when he performs a supererogatory (nawafil) prayer, only the most subtle (altaf) of these subtle centers [i.e. the super-arcanum or akhfa center] (lata’if) is face-turned.”

Now the Mujaddid verifies that knowledge of his by the Hadith and sufi experiences.

There is a hadith, For me, there is an appointed time with Allah. [Li maa ‘Llahu waqtun.] That may refer to this special time (waqt-i khass) that is special for prayer. There is another hadith in line with this. The coolness of my eyes is in my prayer. [Qurratu aini fi ‘l-salati]. Additionally, true unveiling (kashf-i sahih) and clear inspiration (ilham-i sarih) also prove it.

The above idea is a unique knowledge that the Mujaddid received. And this knowledge synthesizes two types of knowledge ― sufi direct experiential knowledge and knowledge attained through the Koran and the Hadith Literature.

This knowledge (marifat) is a knowledge that was uniquely given to me. The sufi masters has recognized that this exalted knowledge (kamal) synthesizes (jama) the [knowledge that is attained by the] two sides (tawajjhain), [one side is the inner knowledge i.e. sufi direct experiential knowledge and the other side is the outer knowledge or the knowledge attained through the Koran and the hadith literature.]

The Mujaddid wrote in the Maktubat that he has been made a sila’, i.e. a connector. One interpretation of this esoteric saying could be that he was the connector between the inner esoteric knowledge and the outer knowledge of the Koran and hadith.

Everything returns to Exalted Allah! Peace towards them who follow good-guidance (huda) and take up on following [Prophet Muhammad] the Chosen, on whom and on whose progeny be the most complete and the most perfect salutation and peace.

Minha 9

Witnessing

The sufi masters (mashaykh) have said, “After they have ‘arrived’ on the level of friendness, the people of Allah ‘witness’ (mushahada) in the interior (dar anfas) [i.e. they see Allah located inside their bodies].”

However, the Mujaddid comments that that alleged witnessing has not been the true witnessing of Allah.

The external witnessings (mushahada-i afaqi), [i.e. that what the sufi sees] on his journey towards Allah (sayr ila Allah) [outside of himself], should not be counted.

That what has been unveiled to me and made known is this, “That witnessing is not really the witnessing of the reality of Exalted Haqq.”

Allah is unqualifiable. So how can he be seen in this world which is qualifiable? Indeed, He is transcendant.

He (SWT) is “without what manner, bi-chun” and “without how, bi-cheguneh”. And He cannot [be seen] in the mirror of the how or chun. Then [how can He be seen] in the mirror of the external world (afaq) or the internal world (anfas)? He (SWT) is neither within (dakhil) the cosmos nor outside (kharij) of it, and He is neither conjoined (ittisal) with the cosmos nor disjoined (munfasil) with the cosmos.

14, 8

In the same way, the witnessing or vision of God will also be a transcendant experience. That’s why the ulama have decided that the beatific vision of God that the faithful will see in the last world will also be a transcendent, unqualifiable experience.

Similarly, the witnessing or vision (shuhud va ri’wayat) of Him (SWT) is neither in (dar) the world nor outside (kharij) the world; neither conjoined (ittisal) with the world not disjoined (infisal) with the world. That is why [the ulama] have said that the vision of [God in] the last world will be without how’ (bi la kayf) ― beyond the intellect or imagination of the created beings (aql va wahm-i kharij).

The Mujaddid alludes that he has received a type of the beautific vision of Allah in this world that very few friends of God have seen. That vision was also seen by the companions in the past and it will be seen by Imam Mahdi in the future as well. And he is describing that first-hand experience in this writing.

[However, Almighty Allah] has unveiled this mystery (sirr) [of the vision of God] to the elect of the elect in this world  It may be noted that that vision [of Allah that his elect sees in this world] is not like the vision (ri’wayat nist kal-ri’wayat ast) [which all the faithful will see in the last world]. This [which is seeing Allah in this world] is a great felicity. Very few people after the era of the blessed companions (daad) have been made felicitous by this felicity.

Now this narration [about witnessing that is in this chapter] may be considered far-fetched today and most people will not accept it. However, even then I am revealing this sublime felicity regardless of whether short-sighted people accept it or not. In the future, this transmission (nisbat) with such uniqueness (khususiyat) will appear in Hazrat Mahdi (daad).

May Almighty Allah will peace on them who follow good-guidance. And follow the Chosen One [who is Prophet Muhammad]. Allah give him and his progeny and his noble companions peace and benediction.

Minha 10

How to Train in the Sufi Path

The Mujaddid instructs a sufi teacher how he should train aspirants on the sufi path. The aspirant should perform a set of istikhara prayers seeking divine guidance, and if he does not receive a negative signal only then his training may be started.

When an aspirant (talib) comes to a [sufi] shaykh, the shaykh should suggest him to perform istikhara, prayers seeking divine guidance. The aspirant should repeat the istikhara three to seven times. After the set of istikharas, if the aspirant does not show any sort of hesitation (tadhbadhbi), his [training] may be started.

First, the sufi aspirant should be taught to repent.

First, he should be taught the proper way to seek repentance (tariq-i tawba) and he should be instructed to offer two cycles (rakaat) of prayer of repentance (namaz-i tawba). It is because without the acceptance of repentance (tawba), setting feet on this path does not yield any result. However, [for te initial time], he should consider a brief repentance (tawba bi-qadr-i ijmal) sufficient and leave full (tafsil) repentance for the future days. It’s because in these times man has little aspiration (himam). And so, if people are prescribed to attain a full repentance (tawba) initially, then that is bound to take a long time.

Second, the sufi master should instruct the aspirant in that specific tariqa among all the sufi tariqas that is most appropriate for that aspirant.

After that, the aspirant should be instructed (taalim) in that tariqa which is suitable (munasib) to his preparedness (istidad). And he should be given (talqin) that type of zikr that seems gentle (mula’im) for his receptivity (qabiliyat). And he should give him face-turnings and his state (hal) should be observed.

There are many different sufi tariqas, e.g. Qadri, Qadri Mujaddidi, Chishti Nizami, Chishti Sabri, Suhrawirdi, archaic Naqshbandi, Naqshbandi Mujaddidi and so on. A specific tariqa may be appropriate for some, and inappropriate for others. For example, one loves loud zikr and singing, then he may follow the Chishti tariqa. On the other hand, one loves to follow the sunna strictly and stay away from all deviation, and then he may follow the Naqshbandi tariqa.

Third, the master should exhort the aspirant to follow the Koran and the sunna.

And he should be taught the manners (adab) and rules (shara’it) of this path. He should be exhorted to follow the Book, the Sunna and the foot-marks of the pious predecessors (athar-i salf-i salihin). You should know that it is impossible to reach the destination without this emulation (mutabaat) [of the prophet and the pious predecessors, the salaf].

Fourth, the teacher should tell the aspirant that all dreams and mystic experiences that violate the sunna is false.

[The shaykh] should notify [the aspirant] that if he [the aspirant] has any unveiling or mystic visions (kushuf va waqa’i) which diverges from the sunna even by the breadth of a hair then he not consider it. Instead, he [the aspirant] should seek forgiveness (mustagfir) [from God for experiencing such a deviant unveiling or vision.]

Fifth, the teacher should advise the aspirant to follow the beliefs of the mainstream Sunni community.

At the same time, you should give him religious advice (nasihat) so that he rectifies (durust) his creed (aqida) according to the established tenets of the saved sect (firqa’i najiya) [i.e. the mainstream Sunni community].

Sixth, the teacher should teach the aspirant the sharia and encourage him to practice it. The Mujaddid believes that belief and practice, both are pre-requisites for God-realization.

And you should hold it necessary to teach him the rules of religious law (ahkam-i fiqhiya) and emphasize practicing (aml) that what is incumbent [on him] as per that science. It is because without the two wings of belief (itiqad) and practice (aml), it is not possible to fly (tiran) on this [sufi] path (rah) [of God-realization].

Seventh, the teacher should exhort the aspirant to eat only lawful food.

Additionally, you should consider it a good deed (mara) to be cautious (ihtiyat) of even a mouthful of forbidden (muharram) or suspicious (mushtaba) [food.] He should not eat whatever he finds or from wherever he finds it, until that food has been proven to be sound (durust) according to the criterion of the shining sharia [that is discussed] in this chapter.

In short, the aspirant must follow the sunna meticulously.

In short, in every matter, this noble verse should be considered, Obey whatsoever the messenger of Allah has ordered you and stay away from whatsoever he has forbidden. (Ma atakum al-rasulu fa-khuzuhu wa ma nahakum anhu fa-ntahu.) (Koran 59:7]

Knowledge and Ignorance

The Mujaddid here explains why mystic visions and unveilings that some Sufis experience are ultimately valueless. Many sufi aspirants experience many other-worldly visions and states, sees lights and colors and realizes other-worldly knowledge. Many others do not. But when they reach the destination, which is God-realization, none of these two groups have any superiority over each other.

With respect to their states (halat), the aspirants can be divided into two groups:

/item Either he will have unveilings (kashf) and knowledge (marifat)

/item Or he will be the ignorant and bewildered (arbab-i jahl va hayrat).

But after traversing (ti) the waystations (manazil) and raising the veils (hizb), both of these groups “arrive on” [the same destination]. No group can claim superiority (maziyat) over the other group in that “arrival.”

Now the Mujaddid employs an analogy to explain why these two groups have the same rank.

It is like when two individuals who reach the Kaaba from a distant place. One of them comes seeing all the interesting things (tamasha) [beside the road] from that place of departure. And he understands (danistan) those things as much as he can understand. And the other individual comes with both of his eyes closed understanding (ittila) nothing on the road from the place of departure.

On the matter of arriving at the Kaaba, both individuals are equal and neither one has any superiority (ziyadati) in this arrival over the other, although there is a great difference between them in learning about the places on the road (manazil-i rah).

To whichever group the sufi belongs, he becomes ignorant and bewildered (jahl, hayrat) when he realizes God. Then he realizes that he knows nothing about God and he could never know God.

However, once they have reached (rasidan) the destination, both of them definitely (dharuri) become ignorant (jahl). It is because when one truly knows (marifat) the person (dhat) of Allah, he realizes that he knows nothing about Him and that he can never know Him (marifat).

Stations of the Wayfaring

16, -7

The Mujaddid teaches us on the stations of wayfaring. Sufis consider that wayfaring consists of progressing through ten stations. The Mujaddid explains that three types of divine self-disclosure (tajalli) are related to these ten stations.

You should know that cutting through (qati) the waystations of wayfaring (manazil-i suluk) means journeying through the ten stations. And journeying through the ten stations depends on the three self-disclosures (tajalli), which are

\item the self-disclosure of the act(s) (tajalli-i afal)

\item the self-disclosure of the attributes (tajalli-i sifat) and

\item the self-disclosure of the person [of God] (tajalli-i dhati).

 the three self-disclosures self-disclosure of the acts self-disclosure of the attributes self-disclosure of the person

 stations versus self-disclosures the station that to which that station is related the first nine stations: the stations of 1. repentance (tawba) 2. solicitude (inayat) 3. God-wariness (wara’) 4. abstinence (zuhd) 5. patience (sabr) 6. surrender to God (taslim) 7. contentment (qanaat) 8. gratefulness (shukr) 9. God-reliance (tawakkul) self-disclosure of the acts (tajalli-i afal), self-disclosure of the attributes (tajalli-i sifat) the final tenth station of good-pleasure (ridha) self-disclosure of the person of God (tajalli-i dhati), love of the person of God (mahabbat-i dhati)

The station of good-pleasure (ridha) is the highest of these stations and only that station needs the self-disclosure of the person of God (SWT) (tajalli-i dhatiya) and the love of the person of God (mahabbat-i dhatiya) to develop at all.

Except the station of good-pleasure (maqam-i ridha), all other stations is related to the self-disclosure of acts (tajalli-i afal) and the self-disclosure of attributes (tajalli-i sifat). And the station of good-pleasure is related to the self-disclosure of the person of God (SWT) and the love of the person of God (mahabbat-i dhatiya). And the necessary culmination [of good-pleasure] is when the lover equates both pleasure and pain coming from the Beloved. Then necessarily good-pleasure (ridha) is realized and dissatisfaction (karahat) vanishes [from the inner realm of the sufi.]

In their final stage of development, the rest of the nine stations also need the self-disclosure of the person of God in order to grow to the highest limit of their development. This self-disclosure of the person is necessary to engender complete annihilation in the aspirant.

In the same way, all these stations develop to the maximum perfection (bulugh) when they receive the self-disclosure of the person (tajalli-i dhati) [of God]. Because, complete annihilation (fana’-i atamm) depends on this self-disclosure (tajalli) [of the divine person].

However, in their initial stage of development, these nine stations need only the self-disclosure of acts (tajalli-i afal) and the self-disclosure of attributes (tajalli-i sifat) in order to grow to their normal level.

However, attaining the rest of such nine stations depends on the self-disclosure of the acts and the self-disclosure of the attributes.

17.3

Now the Mujaddid describes the ten stations and how the sufi obtains them.

For example, when someone witnesses God’s power (qudrat) over himself and all the things, then he returns to Him with repentance (tawba) and solicitude (inayat). He feels fear and dread [from God and as such he becomes Godwary and abstains from forbidden things.] And he becomes patient [as he is well-pleased] on whatever God has predestined knowing that he is powerless [over God’s pre-destination]. And he realizes that the lord is the giver of all bliss and giving or forbidding a favor is solely his discretion [and as such he surrenders to God and becomes contented at what God has destined for him.]

At that point, as a necessary consequence, he is elevated to the station of gratefulness (maqam-i shukr) and places a firm footstep (qadm-i rasikh) onto [the station of] God-reliance (tawakkul). And when divine generosity and grace (atufat va mihrbani) self-disclose on him, then he enters the station of good-pleasure (maqam-i ridha).

After then when he witnesses the divine greatness and magnificence (azimat va kibriyya), then he finds the world despised and disreputable (khar va bi-itibar). As a consequence, he longer longs (bi-raghbat) for the world (dunya).

 The Self-disclosures and the Sufi Path Self-disclosure of Station of the divine attribute of power (qudrat) For example, when someone witnesses God’s power (qudrat) over himself and all the things, then he returns to Him with repentance (tawba) and solicitude (inayat). repentance (tawba) and solicitude (inayat) then he returns to Him with repentance (tawba) and solicitude (inayat). the divine attributes (sifat), the divine act (afal) the first nine of the well-known ten stations the divine person (dhat) good-pleasure (ridha) which is the last one of the ten stations of the sufi path the divine attributes of greatness and magnificence (azimat va kibriyya) After then when he witnesses the divine greatness and magnificence (azimat va kibriyya), finding the world despised and disreputable (khar va bi-itibar), being disenchanted (bi-raghbat) with the world (dunya). then he finds the world despised and disreputable (khar va bi-itibar). As a consequence, he is disenchanted (bi-raghbat) with the world (dunya).

 The Ten Stations in Sequence and their Self-disclosures Sequence the station the self-disclosure 1 repentance (tawba) self-disclosure of the acts (tajalli-i afal), and the self-disclosure of the attributes (tajalli-i sifat) for normal development   AND self-disclosure of the person of God (tajalli-i dhati) and love of the person of God (mahabbat-i dhati) for development to the extreme limit 2 solicitude (inayat) 3-4 God-wariness (wara’) abstinence (zuhd) 5 patience (sabr) 6 ― 7 surrender to God (taslim) contentment (qanaat) 8 gratefulness (shukr) 9 God-reliance (tawakkul) 10 good-pleasure (ridha) self-disclosure of the person of God (tajalli-i dhati) and love of the person of God (mahabbat-i dhati) for any development at all

Attracted-wayfarer and the wayfarer-attracted

The Mujaddid teaches us on the two types of friends of God, the attracted-wayfarer (madhdhub-i salik) and the wayfarer-attracted (salik-i madhdhub). The wayfarer-attracted traverses the well-known ten stations of friendness in a differentiated manner and he realizes all those qualities e.g. patience, God-wariness in a differentiated manner i.e. these qualities are well-developed in him. Ordinary people consider them to have saintly characters.

17, -6

You should know that it is the lot of the wayfarer-attracted (salik-i madhdhub) to attain these stations in a differentiated manner one-by-one (tafsil va tartib).

On the other hand, the attracted-wayfarer (salik-i madhdhub) traverses these stations in an undifferentiated manner very fast as he is burning in the love of God and cannot wait to reach Him in this journey of God-realization. And so these saintly qualities do not appear to be well-developed in him and ordinary people may not consider them to be saintly. However, he does realize the essence of these stations completely; and in a more complete manner than the wayfarer-attracteds.

On the other hand, the attracted-wayfarer (madhdhub-i salik) traverses these stations in an undifferentiated manner (ijmal). It is because divine grace (inayat-i azali) captivates him by love in such a way that he proceeds (pardakht) on those stations in an undifferentiated manner. However, due to that love, he indeed completely attains the cream of these stations (zabad-i maqamat) and the gist of these waystations (khulasa-i manazil). [Thus the attracted-wayfarer realizes these with such a degree of completeness] that it is not possible for even him who [traverses those stations] in a differentiated manner [i.e. the wayfarer-attracted].

Peace for them who follow guidance! Al-salamu ala mani al-tabaa ‘l-huda!

 The Two Types: the attracted-wayfarer and the wayfarer-attracted What are their primary characteristics? How do they attain the stations of friendness? How the common people view them? attracted-wayfarer (madhdhub-i salik) first step: the aspirants experience attraction from God(jadhdhba)   second step: then they embark on wayfaring (suluk) or they traverse the stations step-by-step by their own effort undifferentiated manner (ijmal), completetly attains the cream and the gist ordinary people wayfarer-attracted (salik-i madhdhub) first step: the aspirants embark on wayfaring (suluk) or they traverse the stations step-by-step by their own effort   second step: finally they experience attraction from God(jadhdhba) differentiated manner (tafsil), these stations are well-developed saintly people

Minha 11

Negating Everything

The Mujaddid proposes that the sufi aspirant should reject all pre-conceptions that the sufi masters have proposed on God and instead keep his mind open. He should bear in mind that he doesn’t need to conceptualize or imagine all those anti-sharia sufi theories like all-existence-in-one (wahdatul wujud), all-is-one or monism (tawhid), God-encompasses-the-creation or encompassmentism (ihata) or God-permeates-the-creation or permeationism (sarayan) etc.

The aspirant should negate all false gods both internal and external (nafi aliha’-i batil’-i afaqi va anfusi).  And he should also erase everything that comes [to his mind] via understanding or imagination (fahm va wahm), so that the true object of worship (mabud-i haqq) can be established [who is beyond human understanding or even imagination]. And he should believe that [the idea that] God exists (mawjud) is all [the idea] that is needed (iktifa) [to be believed in order to progress on the path of God-realization. And he doesn’t at all need to conceptualize or imagine all those anti-sharia sufi theories like all-existence-in-one or monism (wahdatu ‘l-wujud, tawhid) or encompassmentism (ihata) or permeationism (sarayan) etc.]

The Mujaddid now criticizes Ibn Arabi who proposed that God is existence itself. Instead, he proposes that God i.e. His person (dhat) is beyond and additional to existence; for existence is created by God. He suggests that the sufi aspirant in his journey should now avoid focusing on the existence of God, instead should focus on the person (dhat) of God.

In that realm [of God] (mawtin), existence may not be predicated [for He is beyond existence. And you don’t need to believe that God is identical to existence like Ibn Arabi believes.] Therefore, you should seek that what is beyond existence, wujud, [which is the person, dhat of God.]

Mujaddid’s proposition is in line with the mainstream Sunni ulama. It’s also supported by sufi masters like Shaykh Alauddawla Simnani.

How eloquently have the ulama of the Sunni community have said, “The existence (wujud) of the Necessary (SWT) is “additional (za’id)” to His person (dhat) (SWT)”. It’s only due to defect in the considerative faculty. (nazar) that people [like Ibn Arabi] claim that existence (wujud) is identical to the person or establish nothing beyond existence. Shaykh Alauddawla [Simnani] has said, “Beyond the world of existence (wujud) lies the world of the loving Lord (maliku ‘l-wadud) [i.e. the Mujaddid agrees with Simnani’s idea that God is beyond existence (wujud) which stands in opposition to Ibn Arabi who proposed that God is existence (wujud) itself.]”

Note: Shaykh Alauddawla Simnani

In an ascent (uruj), the Mujaddid also experienced intoxication. But he also faithfully followed the past masters of Islam. Yes! He did experience states like God-encompasses-the-cosmos, God-permeates-the-cosmos, God-is-near-the cosmos like what the monist Sufis experience. But still he brushed those thoughts aside, since deep in his heart, he believed in the ideas propagated by the past masters of Islam which. And he believed that God cannot be compared with the created things, He is unknowable.

When I [the Mujaddid] ascended above the world of existence [in the Mujaddid’s uruj, ascent towards God] then I was in excessive hal [i.e. then I was intoxicated in the love of God]. But still then, [despite this intoxication I still had some sobriety left, so that] I used to consider myself a Muslim by my “idea that I should faithfully follow the past masters” (ilm-i taqlid) [i.e. since the masters whom I follow used to believe in the articles of faith of Islam, I also did so, however, I was so intoxicated that I did not experience what I perceived as per that articles of faith.].

In short, whatsoever comes in mind to describe a contingent thing is primarily a contingent thing. The Exalted has made his creation incapable of knowing Him.

What the Mujaddid experienced once in this ascent was the product of intoxication ― that is not the final answer. This intoxicated experience, the Mujaddid experienced once in the earlier part of his life and later on he progressed much further and experienced all his states in accordance to the Islamic creed.

Knowing Allah is Impossible

The Mujaddid explains that human beings may never become God and so they may never comprehend Him. God is fundamentally incomparable to the created things ― He is beyond, and beyond and still beyond this world.

You should not think that when a contingent being is annihilated and he begins abiding in Allah (fana fi ‘llah, baqa bi ‘llah), he becomes the Necessary. That is impossible! For it requires a transformation (taqallub) in the fundamental natures (haqa’iq).

Therefore, when the contingent being does not become the Necessary then what else remains for it but to express his inability and incompetence in knowing the Necessary (SWT)?

You can't hunt a phoenix
O hunter! Pick up your net
He who puts his net out for a phoenix
Returns home empty-handed

Anqa shikar kasi nashod va dam baz chin
ke-inja hamisheh bad be-dast ast dam ra

Now the Mujaddid criticizes Ibn Arabi and other Sufis who established inter-relationships between God and the world proposing monist theories such as existential monism (wahdatu ‘l wujud), encompassment (ihata), permeationism (sarayan) etc. Ibn Arabi believed that God’s existence is identical to the existence of the created things. That implies that God is “near”, “with” and “encompassing” to the creation like a physical object is.

For people [or the Sufis] with great aspiration (buland himmat) who are seeking such an object [i.e. the person of God, ultimately what will happen is that] nothing will come to his hand. And he will not find even a clue (nam va nishan) [to the person of God]. There is a group [i.e. the monist Sufis like Ibn Arabi] that conceives it differently. They find that that [person of God] is identical to their own persons and create nearness and withness (qurb va maiyat) with Him. [That is, Ibn Arabi believes that God and the creation are made of the same substance and as such God is “physically” near them, with them and encompass them, just like a physical object can be near them, with them or encompass them.]

Where are You and where am I
O lord!

An ishanand va man cheninam
Ya rabb!

Minha 12

Note: the page numbers of the Persian text here is “hidden”

Bahauddin Naqshband Interpreted

In this chapter, the Mujaddid explains the true meaning (haqiqat) when Bahauddin Naqshband said, Every shaykh’s mirror has two sides but my mirror has six sides. He writes that no shaykh in the Naqshbandi tradition have ever before tried to explain its meaning. However, the Haqq has granted him its real Meaning (haqiqat) and he is only revealing this divinely inspired knowledge.

Hazrat Khwaja Naqshband (qs) has said, “The mirror of each and every [other] sufi shaykh has two sides but my mirror has six.” However, even until today, not a single caliph of this great family [that is the Naqshbandi tariqa] has explained the meaning of this holy utterance (kalima-i qudsiya). Even that, none has even pronounced anything on this matter even as an allusion. So how can this lowly insignificant creature [like me, the Mujaddid] dare to explain it and open up his mouth to unveil it?

Now, by His own sheer bounty and grace, Haqq (SWT) has manifested the secret of this mystery to me, this lowly creature. And He taught me its inner meaning (haqiqat) completely. For this reason, this idea floated in my mind that I clarify this string of pearls and reveal it. So I am speaking out and interpreting this matter in clear language. After doing istikhara prayers, I have started on this chapter. I beseech Allah that He protects me from errors and grants me the ability!

First, the Mujaddid describes the first part of the saying that the mirror of the other sufi shaykhs have two sides.

1.                  \item You should know that the mirror refers to the heart of the gnostic (arif).

2.                  \item And [the heart] is the isthmus (barzakh) between the spirit (ruh) and the soul (nafs). Two sides refer to the side of the spirit and the side of the soul.

3.                  \item And on the time of arrival of the sufi shaykhs onto the station of the heart, both of those sides open up.

4.                  \item And all the knowledge (ulum va maarif) of both of those two stations [the spirit and the soul] that are related to the heart [by being on the two sides] effuses out (fa’id mishod).[to the heart of the Gnostic i.e. the Gnostic realizes that knowledge internally].

\noindent Now the Mujaddid argues that since the heart is the organ for cognition for the Gnostic (minha 43), it means that the Gnostic realizes that knowledge. Then the knowledge flows out to the heart of the Gnostic. And heart is the organ for cognition in sufi science. So that means that the knowledge flows out to the gnostic

 The analogies mirror=heart of the Gnostic two sides refers to spirit and soul which are on two sides of the heart The flowchart of argument the gnostic progresses on the station of the heart the two sides of the heart of the Gnostic opens up  knowledge of these two stations (spirit and soul) effuses out to the heart of the Gnostic Spirit Heart Soul

On the other hand, the Naqshbandi method is quite different. In this tariqa, the end has been inserted in the beginning. That's why in this tariqa you can see six sides in the mirror of the heart (qalb). The detailed description is the following.

That stands in contrast to the method that Hazrat Khwaja [Bahauddin Naqshband] instituted. In that method, the end is inserted in the beginning. And in that tariqa (tariq), you can see six sides in the mirror of the heart. Its clarification has been unveiled to the great ones of this most distinguished tariqa.

\item Whatsoever that is in the totality of human individuals (dar kulliyat-i afrad-i insani) is realized in the six subtle centers (soul, heart, spirit, secret heart, arcanum and super-arcanum) that exist within the heart that is in the human body.

\item The "six sides" refer to these six subtle centers.

\item The shaykhs in the other tariqas journey (sayr) upto the outside of the heart (zahir-i qalb) [only, not the inside] but these masters [of the Naqshbandi tariqa] journey (sayr) into the inside of the heart (batin-i qalb). And in this journey (sayr), they reach inside the “belly of the bellies” (batn-i butun) i.e. deep inside [the heart].

\item And [when the shaykh goes deep inside the heart] on this station of the heart (maqam-i qalb), all the knowledge (ulum va maarif) of the each of the six subtle centers are unveiled (munkashif).

\item However, [although in the first glance, it seems that this knowledge is coming from all the six subtle centers, actually] this is that knowledge which is related to the station of the heart. [Remember! The heart is all-comprehensive and it comprehends all the knowledge of all the six subtle centers. And all that knowledge can be accessed when the shaykh goes deep inside the heart.]

This is the clarification of the holy utterence by Hazrat Khwaja [Naqshband] (qs).

Premises

Mirror is the heart of the Gnostic

Six subtle centers exist within the heart

The six sides refer to those six subtle centers

The argument

Naqshbandi masters journey deep inside the heart

There, all the knowledge from all the six subtle centers are unveiled

It may seem like that that knowledge is coming from all the six centers, actually that is coming from the six subtle centers that exist deep inside the heart.

The Mujaddid realized many esoteric ideas on the station of the heart which he describes now.

On this station, by the blessings of those masters, many and many [mysteries] were [manifested] to me. I have verified and scrutinized (tadqiq) [those mysteries]. And obeying the command of the Generous Lord, And propagate the blessings of Your Lord. (Wa amma bi-nimati rabbika fahaddith). (Koran 93:11). Now I am [revealing] a few mysteries (ramzi) from all those [mysteries that were manifested to me;] and [I’m divulging] a few allusions from all that scrutinization. It is God (SWT) who protects from errors and grants the ability [to describe].

The Five Levels of the Heart

The first knowledge that he reveals here is the knowledge on the five levels of the heart.

While on the first level, the wayfarer reaches the inside of the heart, later he reaches even deeper. And on the second level, he progresses to the heart of the heart. That heart of the heart, like the heart itself, also contains all the six subtle centers described above, which are points in the human body.

You should know that the heart of the heart (qalb-i qalb) contains (mutadamman) the [six] subtle centers, just as the heart [contains all the six subtle centers.] However, on the heart of the heart, because the circle (da’ira) of the heart is narrow (tangi) or due to some other mysterious reason, two of these centers among the above-mentioned six subtle centers are manifested only partially. They are the soul center (nafs) and the arcanum center (akhfa).

Six Subtle Centers: They are the soul, heart, spirit, secret heart, arcanum and super-arcanum. The four other subtle centers are the four elements (fire, air, water, earth) which are distributed all over the human body.

Now the Mujaddid describes the third level of the heart.

The heart (qalb) is in the same state in the third level. Except that the arcanum (khafi) is not manifested there.

Now the Mujaddid describes the fourth level of the heart.

And again the heart (qalb) is in the same state in the fourth level and the secret heart (sirr) is not manifested there. However, the centers heart (qalb) and spirit (ruh) are manifested in this level.

Now the Mujaddid describes the fifth or the final level of the heart.

In the fifth level, the spirit center (ruh) is not manifested and so only thing that remains is only the heart that is a purely simple thing (qalbun mahdun wa basitun sirfun). And nothing to be considered is there [in the heart at the fifth level] except the prototypal thing (la itibar fihi li-shayyun aslan).

That is that heart on the fifth level is an absolutely and purely simple thing and that is the prototype from which all other levels of the heart are derived.

 The Levels of the Heart: The Manifestation of the Subtle Centers Level name Not manifested partially manifested fully manifested not mentioned 1 Heart None None all six: heart, spirit, secret heart, Arcanum, super-arcanum, soul 2 heart of the heart Arcanum, soul heart, spirit, secret heart, super-arcanum 3 and so on Arcanum Soul heart, spirit, secret heart, super-arcanum 4 Arcanum, secret heart heart, spirit super-arcanum, soul 5 Arcanum, spirit, secret heart Heart super-arcanum, soul

The Human Body Contains the Macrocosm

The Mujaddid says that the human body, also called the microcosm (alam al-saghir), is a smaller form of the macrocosm (alam al-kabir). And this microcosm or the human body contains everything in the macrocosm.

Here, you should know some of this sublime knowledge (maarif-i aliya), so that you can “arrive” on that which is the end of the end and the ultimate limit of the ultimate limits (nihayatu ‘l-nihayati wa ghayatu ‘l-ghayati).

Therefore I am proclaiming by the grace of Allah (SWT), “All that is manifested (ma zahara) in the macrocosm [the cosmos] (alam al-kabir) in a differentiated manner (tafsil), all that is also manifested in the microcosm [i.e. the human body] (alam al-saghir) in an undifferentiated manner (ijmal).”

The Human Heart: the First Level

In the first level, everything that is in the macrocosm i.e. the cosmos appears on the human body in an undifferentiated form.p 20 last word, 21 l 1

Therefore, when the microcosm [that is the human body] is polished and its inside is illuminated (nuwwara zahara fihi) then [an amazing thing takes place]. In the same way [that objects appear as reflections] on a mirror, [in that same way] everything that is in the macrocosm in a differentiated form, [all those appear inside the human body or the microcosm in one undifferentiated form.] (fa-idha suqila ‘l-alamu saghiru  wa nuwwara zahara fihi bi tariqa ‘l-mir’atiyyati jamiu ma fi ‘l-alami ‘l-kabiri tafsilan)

p 21 l 2 li-annahu

Because of the illumination, the heart can now contain more things.

As a result of the polishing and the illumination (bi ‘l-siqalati wa ‘l-tanwiri), [the heart’s] capacity to contain things is expanded (ittasaa dia’uhu) and therefore the rule that it [the heart] remains small is withdrawn (fa-zala hukumu sigari-hi). (li-annahu bi ‘l-siqalati wa ‘l-tanwiri qadi ‘l-ttasaa dia’uhu fa-zala hukumu ‘l-sigarihi) [and so the heart expands and becomes large.]

P 21 L 3

We already know that everything that is in the macrocosm appears in the microcosm or the human body in an undifferentiated form as reflection and in the same way everything that is in the human body appears in the heart in an undifferentiated form as reflection.

The relationship that the microcosm has with the heart is the same. We know that all that is in the macrocosm in a differentiated form appear on the microcosm in the undifferentiated form. And in the same way, all that is in the microcosm in a differentiated form, all that appear in the heart in the undifferentiated form. (wa ka-dha ‘l-halu fi ‘l-qalbi ‘llazi nisbatuhu maa ‘l-alami ‘l-saghiri ka-nisbati ‘l-alami ‘l-saghiri maa ‘l-alami ‘l-kabiri min ‘l-ijmalin wa ‘l-tafsilin).[4]

And in the same way, everything that is in the microcosm i.e. human body appears on the heart in an undifferentiated form as reflections.p 21 l 5

Therefore, when the smallest microcosm (alam al-asghar) ― which is the world of the heart (alam al-qalb) ― is polished (suqila) and the darkness (zulmat) on it is removed [then an amazing thing happens]. At that point, all those things that are found in the microcosm (alam al-saghir) [that is the human body] in a differentiated manner (tafsilan), all that also appears on it [i.e. the heart, in an undifferentiated manner. And all that appear] in the same way that [objects appear as reflections] on a mirror as well.

 THREE LEVELS OF differentiation Level The original thing That what it becomes after differentiation 1 Macrocosm or the cosmos Microcosm or the human body 2 Microcosm Heart 3 Heart or smallest microcosm (alam al-asghar) everything that is in the cosmos appear there

The Heart: the Second Level

On the second level, the heart of the heart reflects everything that is in the heart in an undifferentiated form.

p 21 l 7-9 (end of l 9 nuraniyati)

This is how is the situation (hal) that the heart has vis-à-vis the heart of the heart. What appears in the heart in a differentiated manner appears in the heart of the heart in an undifferentiated manner.

The heart of the heart is similarly purified, its capacity to contain things is increased and that caused it to differentiate.

Originally the heart was undifferentiated, and then differentiation appeared (zuhur) there. Whats caused this differentiation was the [heart’s] purification and the illumination (bi-sabab-i ‘l-tasfiya wa ‘l-nuraniyati).

The Heart: the Third and the Fourth Levels

On the third and fourth levels, the again reflects everything that is in the earlier level in an undifferentiated form. As before, the heart is again polished and illuminated, and as a result the heart’s capacity to contain things is increased, and then again, the heart is again differentiated.

The same analogy may be made with respect to the heart which is on the third level and the heart which is on the fourth level. And the same analogy may be made on the undifferentiated and the differentiated levels. That is, what is differentiated on the third level becomes undifferentiated on the fourth level.

Here also, it is the purification of the heart that caused it to differentiate.

On the third level, it appears as a differentiated manifestation (zuhur al-tafsil). And that [happens because on the third level, the heart] is polished and illuminated (bi-sabab-i ‘l-siqalati wa ‘l-nuraniyati), [and as a result, on the third level, the heart gets widened and is given the capacity to contain more things.]

The Heart: the Fifth Level

p 21 l 13 or -7 (to p 22 l 2)

On the fifth level, the heart again reflects everything that is in the fourth level in an undifferentiated form.

In the fifth level, the heart is in the same situation [that everything that is in the heart in the fourth level in a differentiated form appears on the heart on the fifth level in an undifferentiated form.]  Indeed, the heart is simple (bisatatihi) and lacks even the slightest trace of a thing (adami itibari shay’in) after it has realized a perfect purification (tasfiya).

However, as before, the heart is again purified, and as a result the heart’s capacity to contain things is again increased, and then again, the heart is differentiated. And then everything that is in the cosmos appears in the heart.

And after attaining the complete perfection, what does appear in the heart is everything that is found in the worlds i.e. all that, which is found in the macrocosm, microcosm or the smallest world (al-alami ‘l-kabir wa ‘l-saghir wa ‘l-asghar).

Therefore, it [the heart] is the narrow while being the widest thing (al-dayiqu ‘l-awsa), the simple while being the simplest thing (al-basitu ‘l-absat) and the fewest while being the most numerous thing (al-aqallu ‘l-akthar).Note: simple thing, basit,

p 21 l -3

And it is via the heart that man may make a strong connection to God.

Nothing has been created in the world that has this attribute [of the heart]. And nothing can be found [similar to the heart] via which one could make a stronger connection to the Maker (SWT).

And it is the heart that contains many signs from God.

In this singular subtle center (al-latifati ‘l-badiati), verily many amazing signs of the Maker (SWT) appear which do not appear in any of His created things (khalqihi).

And the Mujaddid proves that amazing quality of the heart by a hadith report.

It is written in a hadith report where God speaks in the first person, Neither the heavens nor the earth can contain Me. However, what does contain me is the heart of my faithful servant (la yasuni  ardi wa la sama’i wa la kin yasauni qalbu abdi ‘l-mu’mini.) [Hadith: untraced][5]

Only the Heart Relates to God

The macrocosm contains multiple entities and it is differentiated (kathrat, tafsil) and as such it may not inter-relate to God who is perfect and so is lacking in that multiplicity and differentiation. Therefore, God may not found in the macrocosm.

p 22 line 2

The macrocosm (alamu ‘l-kabir) is the widest mirror in terms of manifestation (zuhur). Still due to its multiplicity and differentiation (katharatihi wa tafsilihi), it has no inter-relationship with [the person of God.] For God has no true multiplicity or veritable (ra’asan) differentiation.

The heart has amazing characteristics and only it is capable of connecting to God. And only the heart may relate to God.

It is clear , as it is not been hidden that only that thing can be adequate (hariy) for a relationship [with the person of God] which is the narrow while being the widest thing (al-dayiqu ‘l-awsa), the simple while being the simplest thing (al-basitu ‘l-absat) and the fewest while being the most numerous thing (al-aqallu ‘l-akthar). [The heart is the only such thing and therefore, it is only the heart that is adequate to relate to God.]

The Most Exalted Gnostic

[There may be a rare] gnostic who has realized knowledge completely and have attained perfect witnessing (shuhud).  Such a gnostic (arif) may reach this [supreme] station, which is exalted in its existence (aziza ‘l-wujuduhu).and noble in its degree (al-sharifa rutbatuhu). That gnostic would become the heart of all the worlds and all the manifestations (qalban lil-awalimu kulliha wa ‘l-zuhurati jamiyiha). He realizes the Muhammadan friendness (walayat-i muhammadi) and he is honored by the invitation from the chosen one (dawat al-mustafawiyya) (on its owner, [Prophet Muhammad] be salutation, peace and benediction).

p 22 para 2

Such an exalted Gnostic is the ruler of other saints of God.

Therefore, all the poles (aqtab), pegs (awtad) and substitutes (abdal) are within his circle of friendness (da’irati walayatihi). And the solitaries and the singulars (afradu wa ‘l-ahadu) and the rest of the classes of the friends (awliya) are illuminated in the light of his good-guidance-giving (hidayatihi). It is because such a man is the appointed deputy (na’ibu manab) of the messenger of Allah (slm) and well-guided (mahdiyu) by the good-guidance of [Prophet Muhammad,] the beloved of Allah.

This transmission is the most exalted spiritual gift.

This exalted and noble transmission is the lot of the elect few whom Allah seeks (murad). It is not the lot of the [ordinary] aspirants (muridin) to attain this perfection. This is the highest magnificence (uzma) and the final station of ultimate pre-eminence (ghayatu ‘l-quswa). There is no station beyond this perfection and there is no gift of Allah more exalted than this [transmission].

Everyone should try to connect to that exalted Gnostic via initiatic lineage. Even Hazrat Imam Mahdi will realize that transmission.

If a gnostic like this is found once in a thousand years, capture that spoil of war [by becoming his disciple]. His blessings (barakat) emanate for a long period of time (mudadin madidatin).in those appointed times [that are found] at distinct intervals [that he appears] (ajalin mutabaidatin). It is he whose speech is like medicine and the glance of his eyes (nazaruhu) is the cure [of diseases]. Hazrat Imam Mahdi will have this noble transmission in this [Muhammadan] community [after the Mujaddid – such is the interpretation of it according to the Mujaddidi tradition].

This is the bounty of Allah! He gives whomever He wants and Allah possesses magnificent bounties! (Dhalika fadlu Llah. Yu’tihi mayyasha’u wa ‘llahu dhu ‘l-fadli ‘l-azi). (Koran 62:4).

p 23 para 2

To attain that great honor of attaining that exalted transmission maximally, one must progress highly in the sufi path.

This felicity (dawlat) is attained maximally (quswa) when the suluk-method and the jadhdhba-method (tariqayi suluk wa jadhdhba) are completed in a differentiated manner level after level (tafsilan martabati bad martabatin), and when the station of annihilation is perfected completely and the station of abidingness (baqa) is perfected perfectly degree after degree (darajatan).

And one may progress highly on the sufi path if one emulates Prophet Muhammad perfectly.

However, it is impossible to attain unless you follow perfectly [Hazrat Muhammad,] the noblest of all prophets (sayyid al-mursalin) and the beloved of the Lord of the worlds (habib-i rabbi ‘l-alamin). (on him and on his progeny be the most excellent salutations and the most perfect peace). Praise be to Allah who has made me one of his followers. I ask Exalted Allah to make me follow (mutabaat) [the Prophet] perfectly, keep me firm on it [being the Prophet’s follower], and keep me resolute on his sharia. May Allah shower mercy (raham) on those ones of His servants who says amin after this supplication that I have made!

This knowledge is a subtle mystery that is unique to the Mujaddid.

This knowledge (maarif) is among those subtle mysteries (asrar-i ‘l-daqiqati) and undisclosed secrets (rumuz-i khafiyati) about which none of the greatest friends have spoken or to which none of the greatest sufis have given a clue. Exalted Allah, by the grace (sadaqati) of His beloved (habibihi) [Prophet Muhammad] (on him and on his progeny be salutations and peace), has elected to divulge these secrets to me. As a Persian poet has composed,

If the emperor comes to the door of the old woman
Khwaja! Don't pull out your moustache [in anger!]

Agar padishah bar dar-i pir-i zan

Whatsoever that God accepts (qabuluhu) is not caused by anything or occasioned by any occasion (muallalan bi shay’in wa la musabbaban bi-sababin)! Allah does whatsoever He wills (yasha’) and commands whatsoever He desires! By His mercy, Allah elects whomsoever He wills. And Allah possesses magnificent bounties!

Almighty Allah! Give peace, blessings and grace to our master Muhammad and his progeny! And on all the prophets, messengers, the angels who are near You, and the wholesome humans! Peace be on them who follow good-guidance and are committed to follow [Prophet Muhammad] the Chosen on whom be peace and blessings.

Minha 13

Stations of the Spirit

The Mujaddid now exposes the mysteries of the spirit, ruh.

The spirit is indeed unqualifiable and non-spatial and God is also unqualifiable and non-spatial. However, the qualities of God cannot be compared with the qualities of His creation. And He is unqualifiable and non-spatial in a far higher degree than the spirit possessing those characteristics.

The spirit (ruh) is from the [unqualifiable] world that is without-what-manner and non-spatial (alam-i bi-chuni, la-makaniyat). However, when we compare that without-what-mannerness [of the spirit] (bi-chuni-i u) with the [without-what-mannerness of the] level of Necessaryness (martaba-i wujub), it [the without-what-mannerness of the spirit] is “what manner itself” (ain-i chun)”. And when we compare the non-spatialness of the [spirit] with the true non-spatialness of God (SWT), it [the non-spatialness of the spirit] is “spatial itself” (ain-i makaniyat).

The world of the spirits is an intermediary realm between this world and the realm of God.  This world is qualifiable and spatial. On the other hand, the realm of God is unqualifiable and non-spatial. Since the world of the the spirits lies in-between them, so it is at the same time qualifiable and unqualifiable, spatial and non-spatial.

p 24 l 4

It is said that the world of the spirits (alam-i arwah) is an isthmus (barzakh) between this world and the level of “without what manner” (martaba-i bi-chuni). And so [the world of the spirits] has two colors. Necessarily, the world of what manner (alam-i chun) considers it [world of the spirits] to be without what manner (bichun). On the othet hand, by the viewpoint of the level of without what manner (bi-chun), [the world of the spirits is] what manner itself (ain-i chun). And it is due to [the spirit’s] innate nature (fitrat-i asli) that it is the isthmus (barzakhiyat) [between world that is without what manner that is non-spatial (bichuni, lamakani) and the world of what manner that is spatial (chun, makani).]

 This world World of the spirits level of Necessaryness or the realm of God

The world of the spirits is in-between this world and the realm of God

Descent of the Spirit

p 24 para 3 amma bad az taalliq

The spirit descended to to the corporeal body and became completely qualifiable from being partially unqualifiable.

Now [the spirit] had been connected to this corporeal body (badan-i anasiri) and it had been confined within this dark frame (haykal). And at the time that it was connected, the spirit came out of this isthmus (barzakh) [that is the world of the spirits] and completely descended into the world of how (alam-i chu) [i.e. the world of empirical things, alam-i khalq]. As a result, the color of without-how-ness (bichuni) faded away from the [spirit].

At that point, an analogy for [the spirit] would be the angels Harut and Marut. It is due to a beneficial reason that the spirits of the angels came down to the lowest point of humanness. Such is the opinion [of the Mujaddid and other enlightened masters].

Harut and Marut: ??????????an explanation is in the tafsir al-mazhari

Ascent of the Spirit

page 24 l -6; 1 line above the para last

From that descent, the spirit ascended again and the soul and body followed the spirit and ascended as well.

There after, by divine grace (inayat-i khudawandi) (SWT), help (dastgiri) arrived. And I returned from this journey. And from this descent I ascended (uruj). The darkened soul (nafs-i zulmani) and the corporeal body (badan-i anasari) also followed the spirit (ruh) and ascended (uruj). And they traversed (ti) through many waystations (manazil).

And the soul, which was previously darkened and the home of all evil, became peaceful and illuminated. And the purpose behind why the spirit was connected to the body became clear to the Mujaddid --- and it seems that the purpose was the rectification of the soul and the body.

At that time, the purpose behind this connection (taalliq) [to the body] and the descent (tanazzul) of the spirit (ruh) became clear. And the instigating [soul] (ammara) realized inner peace (itminan). And the darkness gave way to light. When the spirit (ruh) completed this journey (safr) and when the purpose of the descent (tanazzul) was attained, it [the descent] reached its conclusion (injam).

At that point, the spirit started to ascend ultimately reaching back to the world of the spirits, where the spirit was originally located.

And it [the spirit, it started an ascent that ultimately] reached [back to] (rasidan) the realm of the isthmus [that is the world of the spirits, which is an intermediary realm that, on one end, is connected] to the prototype (barzakhiyat-i asl). And that ended my return to the beginning.

Could that barzakh be the alam-i ruh

p 25 l 2

The Mujaddid here explains a quandary. Sometimes, we may see that even a truly holy man whose soul seems to be in inner peace, even he commits sins. The Mujaddid starts to explain it by first pointing out that the heart is located in the world of the spirits and so it is incapable of committing sin. And while the soul originally belongs to the world of empirical things, it has realized inner peace for a God-realized master and then it has also ascended to the world of the spirits. Therefore, it is also incapable of committing sin.

The heart (qalb) belongs (az) to the world of the spirits (alam-i arwah) [which is the barzakh]. And so it is domiciled (tatan) in the realm of the isthmus (barzakhiyat). The soul in inner peace (nafs-i mutma’inna) [although it is of the world of empirical things, still it] is colored by a color (rangi) of the world of command (alam-i amr). [And this nafs-i mutma’inna] is an isthmus between the heart and the body. And so, it [nafs-i mutmainna] is also located there [in the barzakh, which is the world of the spirits.]

In contrast, the corporeal body is in the created world that the source of all evil and rebelliousness. So if the God-realized sufi master shows any rebelliousness, then it must come from the constituent qualities of the elements.

p 25 l 4

In contrast, the corporeal body (badan-i anasiri) that is composed of the four elements [fire, air, water, earth] is settled in this world of the engendered things (alam-i kawn) or the spatial [world] (makan), [meaning the world of empirical things or alam-i khalq which stands apart from the world of command that is beyond space or location i.e. la-makani.]. And it [the body] is polished (pardakht) by good-deeds and worshipful acts (taat va ibadat). After [the soul have attained inner peace], if [an aspirant] shows rebelliousness or disobedience (sarkashi va mukhalifat), then that may be predicated on [his] “natures” (tabai) or constituent qualities of the elements.

So from which bodily element does the desire to sin comes? The Mujaddid feels that that rebelliousness comes from the element fire.

For example, let us take the ingredient of fire. By its intrinsic nature (ba ‘l-dhat), fire is rebellious and quarrelsome (sarkash va mukhalifat). Like the accursed Iblis, whenever there is an opportunity, it also cries out, I am better than him [Ana khayrum minhu)!] (Koran 7:12)

However, that rebelliousness could never come from the soul as it and God are mutually well-pleased towards each other.

In contrast, the soul in inner peace (nafs-i mutma’inna) remains aloof from rebelliousness because it is well-pleased (radhi) towards the Haqq (SWT) and the Haqq (SWT) is also well-pleased and agreeable (radhi va mardhi) towards it.  And you cannot imagine that two beings who are well-pleased and agreeable towards each other, one of them is in rebellion aginst the other.

Therefore, any rebelliousness for the sufi with his soul in inner peace must come from the physical body, specifically the element fire.

Therefore, if there is any rebelliousness, then it must come from the corporeal body (qalib). For this reason, [Prophet Muhammad], the prince of the messengers (slm) has interpreted the greater struggle (jihad al-akbar) to be [resisting] this satanic rebelliousness. And the source of that [rebelliousness] is that bodily ingredient [that is fire.]

Interpreting the Hadith, “ My Satan Has Been Pacified”

p 25 l -6

The blessed prophet had said, My satan has been pacified (Aslama shaytani).

The Arabic verb aslama may have two different meaning. The first is “to become Muslim”. And the other meaning is “to become pacified” i.e to enter into a state where it obeys Allah. The Mujaddid seems to be be employing this esoteric meaning here.

Now that Hadith has two different interpretations. The first interpretation is that the Prophet referred to the external satan, the genie named Iblis, by the term “my satan.”

That [satan which the Prophet called "my satan",] refers to the “external” (afaqi) satan who is always with (qarin) the holy prophet (slm). However, [the satan to whom the Prophet refers in the hadith of greater struggle] is the “internal” (anfusi) satan. [Yes! We still carry on that struggle against the internal satan, but what the Prophet means by the external satan becoming Muslim is that] the tyranny (sawlat) of this [external] satan [that always accompanies every human being, in this case, the Prophet] is ruined (shakasteh) and his defiance (tamarrud) starts a fast (baz bandeh) [or starts to disappear. Still that external satan will always remain a rebel against God.] For that what is in the essence does not leave the essence. (Amma ma bi-‘l-dhati la yanfaku ani ‘l-dhati.)

The black complexion of the Ethiopia
That is his innate color
[However hard do you try
Does it ever go away?]

Siyahi az habashi KI ra-wa-dal
keh khod rang ast

And the second interpretation of the term “my satan is that it refers to the internal satan, the lower self or the vulgar instinct.

Or "my satan" may refer to the internal satan (shaitan-i anfusi). However, his pacification does not mean that his rebelliousness will end completely.Although his soul has been pacified, it is possible that someone may still abandon difficult-to-do pious deeds (azimat) and take up only easy-to-do pious deeds (rukhsat). And he may still commit minor (saghira) sins apart from those good deeds. Instead, the good deeds of the ‘ordinary pious’ (abrar), they are of the same type as the bad deeds (sayyi’a) of the near ones (muqarraban). These are all types of rebelliousness (sarkashi). And that the rebelliousness [of the internal satan] does not go away [completely, instead remnants of that rebelliousness remains] for his [the sufi’s] own rectification and progress (islah va taraqqi).

It is though that rebelliousness that spiritual growth takes place

It is because after the sufi abandons [the hard-to-do practices] that are the superior practices and instead has taken up those bad practices (nihayat-i naqs) that proves his rebelliousness, he feels sorrow and he regrets, repents and seeks forgiveness (nidamat, pashmani, tawba, istigfar) greatly. And that [repentance] makes (mawjib) him to progress to the end (taraqqiyat bi-nihayat) [of his path of God-realization].

The Body Substitutes the Subtle Centers

p 26 l 7

When the six subtle centers separates from the corporeal body of the God-realized master and ascends in the world of command then the corporeal body becomes their deputy and does all their work.

The six subtle centers (lata’if-i sitta) separates from [the corporeal body] and ascends in the world of command (dar alam-i amr). Then the corporeal body (badan-i anasiri) settles (istiqrar) in its own station. At that point, this very body becomes the deputy (khalifa) [of the six subtle centers] and it [the body] does all their work [on behalf of the six subtle centers.]

The Mujaddid teaches us that for that highly God-realized saint, it is the physical heart that receives inspirations from God.

Having reached that point, if an inspiration (ilham) comes then it is to this very bodily part (mudgha) [that is the heart made of flesh]. And, that [heart of flesh] is the reality of the comprehensiveness of the heart (haqiqat-i jami’a qalbiya).

And he proves by hadith reports that it is the physical heart that receives inspirations from God. Some of them are the following.

1.                  \item He who worships Allah faithfully and sincerely (akhlasa) for forty days in a beautiful manner (sabahan), streams of wisdom gushes out of his heart and [flows] onto the tongue. [Man akhlasa liLlahi arbain sabahan zaharat yanabiul hikmati min qalbihi ala lisanihi, Hadith: untraced] This hadith refers to the [physical] heart. Allah knows the best!

2.                  \item Verily! My heart is blackened [some of the times]. [Innahi layughanu ala qalbi, Hadith: untraced] Here, what is blackened is that bodily part (mudgha), not the reality of the heart (haqiqat-i qalb). For that [reality] is absolutely free from all blackness.

3.                  \item The heart of the faithful is between two of the fingers of the All-merciful. [Qalbu ‘l-mu’minu bayna isbaaini min asabiI ‘l-Rahmani, Hadith: Muslim] In this hadith report, this fluctuation (taqallub) of the heart is also mentioned as well.

4.                  \item The heart of the faithful is like that stray feather of a bird which lies in some open field. [Qalbu ‘l-mu’mini ka-rishatin fi ardi falatin, Hadith: untraced]

5.                  \item Allah! O You who make hearts fluctuate! Keep my heart firm on doing things that pleases You. [Allhumma! Ya muqalliba ‘l-qulubi! Thabit qalbi ala taatika, Hadith: Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah]

p 27 l 2

The Mujaddid is now proving, employing the above-mentioned hadith reports, that the Prophet considers the physical heart to be the organ that receives inspirations.

And the fluctuation (taqallubu) and the lack of stability (adamu ‘l-thabati) of the heart (thabitatun) refers to that bodily part (mudgha) because truly, the reality of the [heart] that brings all together (haqiqata ‘l-jamiata) does not fluctuate (taqallub) in that manner ― for that [reality of the heart] is in inner peace (mutma’innatun) and it is deeply rooted (rasikhatun) in that inner peace.

Now the Mujaddid is corroborating his view by bringing an example from Hazrat Abraham.

When [Hazrat Abraham] the friend (slm) [of Allah] was supplicating for the heart to be in inner peace (al-itminani li ‘l-qalbi) then he was meaning nothing else but that bodily part (mudgha) because his real heart (qalbahu ‘l-haqiqiya) had already been in inner peace (mutma’in). Even his soul (nafs) was in inner peace (mutma’in) as it was under the administration of his real heart (bi-siyasati qalbihi ‘l-haqiqiyi).

Here the Mujaddid is alluding to the Koran, Abraham????????

Shihabuddin Suhrawardi’s Inspiration Rectified

p 27 l 7the Prophet said, “……..??????????”

The Mujaddid criticizes Hazrat Shihabuddin Suhrawardi’s inspiration ― he said that it is the soul in inner peace (nafsi ‘l-mutma’inna) that receives iinspiration (ilham).

The author of the Awarif [-i Maarif, Shaykh Shihabuddin Suhrawardi] (qs) has written, “Inspiration (ilham) is the attribute (sifat) of a soul in inner peace (nafsi ‘l-mutma’inna) that has ascended (arajat) to the station of the heart (maqami ‘l-qalb).  Verily the variegations (talwinat) and transformations (taqlibati-hin) [of all the colors, in that case, those] become attributes of the soul in inner peace.” ― It contradicts the previously-mentioned Hadith report “as you see Him (hua kama tara)”.  ?????arabic quote????????

The Mujaddid teaches us that Hazrat Shihabuddin had a hal of a lower maqam and that’s why he contradicted the sunna.

If Hazrat Shihabuddin could ascend [to a higher level] from this above-mentioned station [that is on a lower level] then he surely would have experienced the [correct] knowledge on the matter (alima ‘l-amra) and would have realized the truth in what I have told you. In that case, his unveilings and inspirations (al-kashfu wa ‘l-ilhamu) would have been in accordance with the saying of the Prophet (salam).

p 27 l -7

And the Mujaddid proposes that it is the heart, not the soul that receives the divine transmissions.

Certainly, you realize that what I said before contradicts him [Shaykh Shihabuddin. And I said before] that this bodily part (mudgha) [i.e. the physical heart] that is the comprehensive reality (haqiqat-i jamiya) becomes the deputy (khalifa) [of the soul in inner peace, nafs al-mutma’inna]. And [then, instead of the soul in inner peace, it is the physical heart itself, which, having become the deputy,] receives the inspirations (ilham), experiences all the states (hal) and is colored by the different colors (rang). [What I said is] too hard to comprehend to them who are fanatic, uninformed and ignorant (al-mutaassibina ‘l-jahilina ‘l-qasirina) of the true meaning or the reality (haqiqat) of the thing and it is unpleasant (thaqula) to them.

p 27 l -4

The Mujaddid quotes a hadith report to demonstrate the validity of his position.

What will they comment on this report of the Prophet, Verily there is a bodily part (mudgha) in the body of the children of Adam such that when it is wholesome then it makes the entire body wholesome and when it is corrupt then it makes the entire body corrupt. Take note! That [bodily part] is the heart. [Inna fi jasadi bani-adama la-mudghatan idha saluhat saluha ‘l-jasadu kulluhu wa idha fasadat fasada ‘l-jasadu kulluhu. Ala! Wa hiya ‘l-qalbu, Hadith: Bukhari]

In this saying, [the Prophet Muhammad,] (slm) has clearly declared this bodily part (mudgha) to be the heart. And he has created a connection between the wholesomeness and the corruption of the body (salaha ‘l-jasadi wa ‘l-fasadahu) with the wholesomeness and the corruption of the heart. Therefore whatsoever is true for this bodily part (mudgha) is also true for the real heart (al-qalbi ‘l-haqiqiyi). However, this relationship is on the basis of being the deputy (al-niyabati wa ‘l- khilafati).

p 28 para 2

 What is the organ of receiving the transmission from God? That is which organ receives the inspiration, experiences the states, and is colored ny the different colors? Shaykh Shihabuddin The Mujaddid The soul in inner peace (nafsi ‘l-mutma’inna) that has ascended (arajat) to the station of the heart (maqami ‘l-qalb). The bodily part (mudgha) [i.e. the physical heart] that is the comprehensive reality (haqiqat-i jamiya), which has become the deputy (khalifa) [of the soul in inner peace, nafs al-mutma’inna].

Spirit Becoming Perfect: Death Before Death

The Mujaddid describes the “death before death” that the God-realized Sufis experience.

Know! When the spirit is separated from the body (jasad) by the death that occurrs before the usual kind of death [i.e. the sufi experience of death before death] then the Gnostic who has arrived (arif-i wasil) [on the station of death before death] presumes that his own spirit has neither entered (dakhil) the body nor been outside (kharij) the body. And it is neither attached to the body (muttasil maahu) nor detached from the body (munfasil maahu).

Yes! The spirit is then separated from the body, however even then it still retains a connection to the body through which the body receives good.

Then he concludes that the spirit still has a connection (taalliq) to the body. And the purpose is so that the body becomes wholesome. Also another purpose is to return the perfection of the spirit back to the spirit.

And it is via this connection with the spirit that the body attains good.

And this connection (taalliq) [between the spirit and the body], it is the source of the wholesomeness and good in the body (jasad). If this connection [between the spirit and the body] were not there, the entire body would be ruined and worthless.

28, para 3

On the other hand, God has no anti-sharia “monist” relationship with the world.

This is the state between the Necessary on one hand and the spirit and the other [subtle centers] on the other hand. Verily God (SWT) is neither inside (dakhil) the cosmos (alam) nor outside (kharij) it, neither attached (muttasil) with the cosmos nor disattached (munfasil) from the cosmos.

Instead, God is connected to the world via a connection (taalliq) just like the human spirit has a connection to the body.

Instead, God (SWT) has a connection (taalliq) with the cosmos (alam) and through which He creates it (khalqan), sustains it (abqa’) and gives energy (ifada) [to the spirit] for its perfection and makes [the spirit] suitable (ila’n) for [receiving] bliss and blessings (li ‘l-niami wa ‘l-khayrati).

p 28, para 4

The Mujaddid explains why the ulama did not reveal such sufi mysteries already.

Question: The ulama of the people of truth, they have not spoken any such thing on the spirit as what has been spoken.  Instead, they have on the verge of not permitting them (lam yujayyizuhu) [such statements]. And you consider it imperative to follow them [the ulama of the people of truth] in both small matters and big matters. So how do you explain this mutual contradiction?

28, last line

And the answer is that the ulama have not spoken about this knowledge because few ulama know it and because it might confuse the common people.

Answer: I said that the scholars who know the reality of the spirit (alimu bi-haqiqat-i ruh-i) are few. Therefore, because they [the regular alims or scholars] know so little, they have not said anything on the [little information that they have received via] unveiling on the [the evolution or the process of] perfection of the spirit (bi-kashfi ‘l-kamalati ‘l-ruhaniyati). And they have considered it sufficient to describe it briefly (ijmal). They have avoided this topic out of fear that the common people (awam) will fall into error (dalala).

It is because [in one specific level], the perfection of the spirit (kamalat al-ruhiyyata) appears to be similar to the perfection of the Necessaryness (kamalat-i wujubiyyati). There is a fine difference between them which none knows except the scholars who are deeply rooted in knowledge (rasikhuna). So they have narrated this matter in brief and renounced (inkar) them who clarified it and unveiled its reality. However, they have never renounced its perfection that has been mentioned earlier.

The Mujaddid leaned this knowledge from his unveilings and inspirations, not rational consideration or speculation.

I [the Mujaddid] am an incompetent person! Still then, I am clarifying and unveiling some of the major components of the sublime science (khwassihi itimadan) [that is the science of the spirit]. [I’m narrating this knowledge] by my true knowledge (ala ilmihi al-sahihi) and clear unveilings (kashfihi al-sarihi). By the help from Exalted Allah! By the blessing and as the present of His beloved [Prophet Muhammad] (slm)! Along with it, the hesitation [that was an obstacle] on describing (niatin) this clarification is removed. So try to understand it.

29, para 2

As postscript, it should be pointed out that the spirit benefits from the body as well, just as the body benefits from the spirit.

We know from it (yunbaghi an yulama) that just as the body benefits from the perfected spirit (al-ruhi kamalatin) beyond measures (la tuhsa), so does the spirit as well. It also acquire from the body sublime energy (fawa’ida uzma). [Through the body,] the spirit hears, sees, talks and corporealizes itself into [a separate] body (mutajassidan) [within the human body.] As a result, the spirit is able to do many tasks related to the corporeal world (afalin nasabat bi-alami ajsad). [That is, the spirit now can do many tasks, which only a body can do and which the spirit could not have done by itself beforehand].

Intellect That Has Returned

29, 3, line 1, 2nd sentence

The Mujaddid reveals to us on the intellect with the highest level of perfection of the intellect that which is called the “intellect that has returned.”

It has been mentioned above that the soul in inner peace (nafs-i mutma’inna) [ascends to the world of the] spirits and joins them (bar ruhaniyan mulhaqq shod). And in the world of the corpus (alam-i ajsad), intellect (aql) sits in its place [the place of the soul in inner peace] assuming the name the ‘intellect that has returned’ (aql-i maad). At that time, it thinks only about the last world and does not at all think (indisheh) about living this earthly life (maishat). And the light (nur) that Allah gives him makes him worthy of perspicacity (firasat). This level is the end or final level (nihayat) of the levels of the perfection of the intellect (maratib-i kamalat-i aql).

The Flowchart

soul in inner peace ascends to the world of the spirits and joins them.

And in the world of the corpus (alam-i ajsad), intellect (aql) sits in its place [the place of the soul in inner peace] assuming the name the ‘intellect that has returned’ (aql-i maad).

At that time, it thinks only about the last world and does not at all think (indisheh) about living this earthly life (maishat).

And the light (nur) that Allah gives him makes him worthy of perpicacity (firasat).

This level is the end or final level (nihayat) of the levels of the perfection of the intellect (maratib-i kamalat-i aql).

Now the Mujaddid explains this matter by asking a question. The friends who have not yet realized the zenith of perfection, they may remember that the focus of the intellect at the initial level was nothing but God. And those imperfect friends may argue that it would seem logical that God would be the focus of the intellect at its apogee of perfection, and it would then forget both this world and the last world. But the Mujaddid here teaches us that the on the final level, the intellect will only think about the last world, instead of God. Why is it so?

Question: The imperfect ones may disagree here. [They may make an alternative claim] that the end or final level of the levels of the perfections of the intellect should be when it would forget both this life (maash) and the return (maad) [or the last-worldly life, and instead concentrate solely on God]. In the beginning the focus (indisheh) of [the intellect] was nothing but Allah (SWT). Why would it not be the same [at the end]?

In answer, first, the Mujaddid reminds us that the intellect forgets both this world (dunya) and the last world (akhirat) on the level of annihilation in Allah which is an initial level on the sufi path. On the other hand, the intellect realizes this final perfection at a far more advanced level.

Answer: [The wayfarer] attains this [initial] forgetfulness (nisiyan) on the level of the annihilation in Allah (martaba’i fana fi-Llah). However, this perfection is realized after many days journey (marahil) beyond that.

However, intellect may progress towards many higher stations above that station. And when the intellect realizes perfection, it progresses to those higher stations.

Here, [in this station of perfection, for that perfected intellect,] knowledge comes back after ignorance, the full intensity of the separation (aud-i farq) comes after realization of the union (tahqiq-i jama) and true Islam (islam-i haqiqi) is realized after the rejection of Islam in the sufi path (kufr-i tariqat).

The philosophers’s view on the advancement of the intellect is wrong.

Witless philosophers have established four levels (maratib) [of advancement] for the intellect (aql) and have reduced (munhasar, mukhtasar) the perfection of the intellect [to those four levels]. That line of thinking is the result of their ignorance (az kamal na-danist).

Study these four levels

However, even the perfected intellect is limited. Only the sufi masters who strictly follow the sunna may realize, by the method of unveiling, that knowledge that they obtain from the storehouse of the knowledge of the prophets. Unless the intellect follows that unveiling-derived inner knowledge, it will not realize true knowledge.

Even when it [the intellect] has realized perfection (kamalat), the reality of the intellect (haqiqat-i aql) cannot be realized through [that perfected] intellect and imagination (aql va wahm) ― that reality can be realzed only via true unveiling (kashf-i sahih) and clear inspiration (ilham-i surih) collected from the lamp of the light of prophetness (nur-i mishkat-i nubuwat).

Benediction and peace of Allah on all the prophets and the messengers in general and especially on His beloved prophet Muhammad!

30 para 3

Intellect Is the Translator of the Spirit

The Mujaddid explains the expression “intellect is the translator of the spirit”.

Question: Some sufi shaykhs have said, “Intellect (aql) is the translator, tarjuman for the spirit. Aql tarjuman-i ruh ast.” What does it mean?

In answer, first, the Mujaddid discusses on the prototypal heart that is in the world of the spirits. It is that prototypal heart that receives the knowledge from God via inspiration (ilham).

Answer: The heart (qalb) takes the knowledge (ilm va marifat) that gushes out of its fountainhead by the method of spiritual reception (bi-talaqqi-i ruhani). And [we already know that] the heart is from the world of the spirits (alam-i arwah).

Second, the Mujaddid teaches us that the intellect translates that knowledge that the heart has received.

Intellect (aql) translates (tarjuman) that [knowledge, which has been received by the heart]. It [the intellect] records and condenses (muharrar va mulakhkhas) that [knowledge] so that [even] those who are captivated by the world of empirical things (giriftaran-i alam-i khalq) could understand that [sublimely spiritual knowledge that the heart had received originally]. Unless the intellect (aql) interpretes that [knowledge], it is very difficult or even impossible to understand it.

p30 last line va chun

Finally, the Mujaddid shows us that the physical heart is the substitute of the true heart of the world of the spirits. And the intellect in the human body translates this bodily heart.

The bodily part that is the heart (mudgha’i qalbiya) is the deputy of the reality of the all-comprehending heart (khalifa’i haqiqat-i jamiya qalbiya). Therefore, that [bodily heart] realizes the properties of the prototypal [heart, which is a sublime entity of the world of command] (hukm-i asl). And its [the bodily heart’s] capability to receive (talaqqi) is similar to the spirit’s capability to receive (talaqqi-i ruhani). [However,] it [that bodily heart] depends on the translator [that is the intellect].

31, para 1

As a postscript, the Mujaddid comments that when the intellect that has returned reaches the supreme level of perfection, it leaves the mold and makes the physical heart its substitute. And then the intellect no longer translates the heart, instead, then the heart translates itself.

You should know that there is a time when the intellect that has returned (aql-i maad) longs (shawq) to be adjacent (mujawara) to the soul in inner peace (nafs-i mutma’inna). [When this longing] reaches the extreme, it elevates [the intellect that has returned] onto the station of [the soul in inner peace]. Then [the intellect that has returned] leaves the mold (qalib) empty. At that time, wisdom and zikr (taaqqul va tadhakkur) [takes the place of the intellect that has returned and] settles in the bodily part that is the heart (be-mudgha qalbiya). Verily, there is advice in this description to him who has a heart. (Inna fi dhalika ladhikra liman kana lahu qalbun). Then this very heart translates itself.

The Pacification of the Mold

31, p 1,5

Now the sufi pacifies the four elements that constitute his mold or physical body.

The Fire Element Pacified

First comes the fire element.

At this time, the gnostic (arif) inter-relates (muamila) with the body. The cry "I am better than him, Ana khayrum minhu" is an intrinsic nature (nahad) of the fiery ingredient (juz) [of the body]. And [at that time that element fire] is dealt with and it is reduced to obedience (inqiyad). And degree by degree, it [the element fire] is ennobled by the noble gift that is true submission to Allah or the “inner” Islam (islam-i haqiqi).

Here the word islam-i haqiqi means not the “outer facets” of the religion of Islam but instead a true submission to Allah or the “inner” Islam. In that state, the Gnostic unquestioningly obeys Allah always.

[And when the element fire realizes true submission,] its diabolical robe (khilat-i iblisi) comes off. And it reaches the prototypal station of the soul in inner peace (be-maqam-i asl-i nafs-i mutma’inna). And it [the bodily ingredient or the element that is fire] becomes the substitute for the principal (na’ib-i munab) [that is the soul in inner peace.]

[At that time, two transformations take place] within the mold (qalib) [or the physical body.]

1.                  The bodily part (mudgha) [i.e. the physical heart] becomes the deputy (khalifa) of the real heart (qalb-i haqiqi) [that is in the non-spatial realm nearer to God.]

2.                  And the fiery ingredient (juzw-i nari) [or the element fire in the human body] ― it becomes the substitute for the principal (na’ib-i munab) that is the soul in inner peace (nafs-i mutma’inna) [that has ascended to the world of the spirits upom realizing inner peace].

The copper of my body turns to gold
By the alchemy of burning love [for God]

az kimiya-i ishq

 The Transformations In the God-realized sufi’s body Becomes the deputy of it which is in the world of the spirits The physical heart Real heart The element fire Soul in inner peace

The Air Element Pacified

31, last para (juz’i hawa-ii)

Air is the second element of the human body and that is purified the second. When he reaches the station of the air on his ascent, the sufi often mistakenly believes that he has reached God and becomes contented, and so he loses the desire to progress.

The ingredient “air” is related to the spirit (ruh). So when the wayfarer “arrives on” (usul) and ascends (uruj) to the station of the air (be-maqam-i hawa), it happens that he [mistakenly] recognizes this very air as the proof that he has realized God (unwan-i haqqaniyat). And he becomes a captive in that station [and he does not even want to progress any further as he mistakenly believes that he has found God.]

And the sufi often makes the same mistake on the station of the spirit ― he is captivated by the spirit and he loses the urge to progress under the false premise that he has found God.

In the same way, this very witnessing [that is so wrong and defective that happens on the station of the air] comes in hand in the station of the spirit [as well] and captivates the wayfarer. Some sufi shaykhs have said, “Fot thirty years, I have worshipped the spirit (ruh) as God (khuda) [mistakenly while I was on that station of air. Only] after I have traversed that station, I have [been able to] distinguish between the truth [that God is something that is beyond the spirit] and the falsehood [that God is the spirit].”

Air and spirit are similar and so when the spirit ascends from the body, the element air takes its place.

This ingredient of air ― as it is related to the station of the spirit ― takes the place of the station of the spirit within the mold. And in some instances, this [ingredient of air] acts as if it is the spirit.

The Water Element Pacified

The third element in the human body is water.

The ingredient water is inter-related (munasib) with the reality of the comprehensiveness of the heart (haqiqat-i jamia’-i qalbiya). It is for this reason that its energy (faydh) is in each and every thing. As the Koran says, I have made every living thing from water. [Wa jaalna min al-ma’i kulla shayyin hayyin.] (Koran 21:30) Its place of return (baz gast-i U) is also the bodily part that is the heart (mudgha’i qalbiya).

The Earth Element Pacified

32,3

The earth element, once it has been purified, dominates the body.

The ingredient earth is the major constituent (juzw-i azim) of that mold [that is the human physical body.] By its intrinsic nature (sifat-i dhatiya), it is bad and nasty (dana’at va khissat). However, after it has been purified [of that evil nature], it [the earth element] rules over and dominates (hakim va ghalib) the mold (qalib). [The element earth] rules whatever that is in the mold [or the physical body]. And [that whatever that is in the physical body] takes on the color [of the earth].

The earth element predominates because it constitutes the entire mold. Yes! There are other elements in the human body (e.g. fire, air and water), but they are like “colors” that modify the earth element.

[The earth element predominates] because it constitutes the entire [mold] (jamiyat-i tam]. Indeed, every particle (ajza’) of the mold is truly a particle (ajza’) of [the earth element]. For this reason, the terrestrial earth (kura’i ardi) is the center (markaz) of the elements (anasir) and the celestial spheres (aflak). And the center (markaz) [of that earth] is the center of the entire cosmos (alam).

diagram

Conclusion of the Pacification of the Mold

When all the four elements of the mold are pacified, then the sufi attains the capability to make others perfect (kamil-i takmil, kamil-i mukammil).

[When all the four elements of the mold are pacified,] in such a situation, the inter-action of the mold (muamila’i qalib) concludes and it [the mold] comes to the end of ascent and descent (nihayat-i uruj va nuzul). It is the moment that it [the mold] reaches perfection in its ability to make others perfect (kamal-i takmil). This is that end that returns to the origin (nihayat keh ruju be-bidayat).

Separation after Union (farq bad al-jam)

p 32 para 2

The Mujaddid describes “the separation that is after the union” (farq bad al-jam).

First, we may note that when the spirit is brought together with God (jam) during this “union”, it still focuses on the world in order to nurture the body.,

You should know the following. The spirit, along with its own levels and along with its subordinates (ba maratib va tawabi-i khod) [i.e. the spirit in its totality], ascends to (rasideh bud, bi-tariq-i uruj) its own domicile (bi-maqr-i khod) [or the original station]. Still then, in order to nurture (tarbiyat) the “mold” (qalib) [or the body], it [the spirit] concentrates on this world.

DEFINE MOLD

Second, when the body is perfected then two happenings happen.

The spirit turns away from the body and instead concentrates on God.

The body becomes a perfect slave of God.

When the inter-action [of the spirit] with the mold (muamila-i qalib) concludes [with the mold having reached perfection] then [two happenings happen],

1.                  The spirit ― along with the [six subtle centers, lata’if] secret heart, the arcanum, the super-arcanum, the heart, the soul (ruh, sirr, khafi, akhfa, qalb, nafs) and the [entity] intellect (aql) ― concentrates its mind towards God (khudavandi) turning its concentration away from the mold.

2.                  And the mold completely (bi-kulliyat) turns its face towards the station of slavehood (ubudiyat).

p 32 l -4

Third, two more happenings happen,

aaa

qqq

This is the explanation of separation after union (farq bad al-jam).

Then [two more happenings happen].

1.                  The spirit, with [all] its own levels (maratib-i khod), positions itself onto the station of witnessing and presence (maqam-i shuhud va hudur) and [at that point, it no longer] sees or knows (did va danish) anything that is apart from God (\emph{ma sewa}).

2.                  On the other hand, the mold, in its entirety, become deeply rooted (rasikh) in the station of obedience and servanthood (taat va bandegi). This is the station of separation after union (farq bad al-jam).

Exalted Allah grants success in realizing perfection (kamalat)!

33,1

The Mujaddid is revealing on this station of “separation after union” from his personal experience. Here, the spirit derscends from the world of the spirits to the world of the created things.

I have walked over this station in a unique (khass) way. [It is on this station that] the spirit, ― with all its levels (maratib) ― returns to the world of empirical things (alam-i khalq) in order to invite the people towards the Haqq (SWT). At this time, the spirit attains the characteristics (hukm) of the body (qalib) and follows it. And it becomes that if the body is present (hadir) then the spirit is also present and if the body is heedless (ghafil) then the spirit is also heedless.

salat

However, during the time that one performs the salat (namaz), the spirit ― with all its levels ― turns its attention (mutawajjah) towards the Holy Being (SWT) even when the body is heedless (ghafil). It is because, for the person of faith (mu’min), salat is the platform from where he ascends to the heavens (maarij).

Note: The Mujaddid is referring to the hadith report, Salat is the heavenly ascension for the person of faith (Al-salatu  miraju ‘l-mumin).

 FLOWCHART   Separation after union the spirit ascends to the station of the spirit, its domicile still then, the spirit concentrates on the world, in order to nurture the mold When this nurturing concludes, the mold realizes perfection and the state of slavehood of God. And the spirit turns its attention off the mold. And instead the spirit turns its attention wholly towards God And the mold becomes obedient and worshipful towards God And the spirit progresses to the station of witnessing and presence. Therefore, it sees or knows only one thing ― God

The Station of Invitation

p 33 para 2

The Mujaddid is now teaching us on the station of invitation. If the sufi wants to become capable of inviting people to God, he must descend to the lowest point.

You should know that when [the sufi] who has reached [or “arrived” with] God returns [towards the creation] completely (ruju-i wasil-i keh be-kulliyat) [in his descent,] then that would be the perfect station for inviting [people towards God] (akmal-i maqamat-i dawat).

The way God has made it is that only when the????????

Now that God-realized sufi would reach the station of heedlessness. However, this heedlessness is diametrically opposite the initial type of heedlessness. The Mujaddid now compares and contrasts the three states,

The initial heedlessness that the sufi had in his initial level

The presence that the sufi attained in his ascent, and

The final heedlessness that the sufi realized when he had descended completely in his descent

[Paradoxically,] this heedlessness (ghaflat) [that takes place after the sufi has descended completely] is the occasion (sabab) that makes many people to become attentive (hudur).

[On one hand,] the [truly] heedless ones (ghafilan) [who have been heedless on the initial level] are heedless to this [good] heedlessness (ghaflat) [that comes on the final level]. [On the other hand], the attentive ones (hadiran) are ignorant (jahilan) about this return (rajat) [that the God-realized sufi makes towards the creation in his descent].

p 33 para 2 l 3

This station [of final heedlessness] deserves praise although it may seem that it deserves censure.

People of little understanding may not understand this. However, if I describe the perfections (kamalat) of this [final] heedlessness (ghaflat), then no one will ever want to be attentive (hudur).

In Praise of the Final Heedlessness

It would be useful here to recount the benefits of this final level of heedlessness that the sufi realizes after his return from God when he has descended completely to the world of empirical things.

\item This is that heedlessness (ghaflat) that has granted the most distinguished of men superiority (fadilat) over the most distinguished of the angels.

\item This is that heedlessness that has made Hazrat Muhammad (slm) the mercy to the inhabitants of the cosmos (rahmat-i alimiyan).

\item This is that heedlessness that elevates one from of friendness to prophetness.

\item This is that heedlessness that elevates one from being an ordinary prophet (nubuwat???) to being a major prophet (risalat).

1.                  This is that heedlessness that has granted superiority to the friends of God who live within the society (ashrat) over the friends who live in seclusion (azlat).

2.                  This is that heedlessness that has granted superiority to Hazrat Muhammad the messenger of Allah (slm) over [Hazrat] Abu Bakr the champion of truth although they were [so similar that they were] like two ears of the same horse.

3.                  This is that heedlessness that has granted superiority to sobriety (sahw) over intoxication (sukr).

4.                  This is that heedlessness that has granted [absolute] superiority to the prophetness (nubuwat) to friendness (walayat) despite what the defective ones [like Ibn Arabi] say. [And Ibn Arabi said that friendness is superior to prophetness in some contexts].

5.                  This is that heedlessness, due to which, the pole of good-instruction-giving (qutb-i irshad) is superior to the pole of the substitutes (qutb-i abdal).

6.                  This is that heedlessness which [Hazrat Abu Bakr] the champion of truth desired. In this context, he used to say, "Alas! How I wish that I could be an absent-minded act (sahw) of Muhammad ya laytani kuntu sahwa muhammadin.”

7.                  This is that heedlessness to which attentiveness (hudur) is a lowly servant.

8.                  This is that heedlessness whose “arrival” (wusul) is prior to (muqaddima) its “attainment” (husul).

9.                  This is that heedlessness which outwardly appears to be regress (be-surat-i tanzil) but in reality, it is progress (taraqqi).

10.              This is that heedlessness which confuses (mushtabeh misazad) the commoners about the elect (khwas ra be-awam mushtabeh misazand) and hides their perfections [before the commoners] (qubab-i kamalat-i ishan migardad).

If I explain it
It would be limitless

Gar be-gu’im sharh-i in

A little points out to a lot. A drop [of knowedge that is described here] indicates that there is [a body of knowledge as big as] a sea-like body of water (al-bahru ‘l-ghadir) [beyond that what has been described here].

Peace to them who follow guidance and fully follow the Chosen One [Prophet Muhammad]! On him and on his progeny be the most complete and the most perfect salutation and peace!

Minha 14

On the Exalted Station of Prophet Muhammad

The Mujaddid teaches us that Prophet Muhammad has been given the self-disclosure of the person of God while no other prophet has been given that. Additionally, the great saints of Islam have also been given a share of that self-disclosure.

Prophet Hazrat [Muhammad], the “seal of the messengers” (slm), has been uniquely distinguished over the rest of the prophets (SLM) by [being given] the self-disclosure of the person of God (tajalli-i dhati). This felicity that is above all the perfections is unique (makhsus). The perfect ones (kummal) who follow him [Prophet Muhammad] have a share of this elect station.

The Mujaddid now explains his statement “the perfect ones who follow him have a share of this elect station”.

Question: Does not this statement prove that the perfect ones (kummal) of this community are superior to the rest of the prophets [other than Prophet Muhammad. Since the Sunni creed says that even the highest of the companions is below the lowest of the prophets,] would that not contravene the creed of the Sunni community?

And this superiority (fadl) [of the prophets over the friends] is not partial (juz’i) ― if it were then there could be some reservation on this elevation [and we could then believe that a few highly exalted friends may indeed be higher than some prophets] ― but instead it is universal (kulli) [and that means that each and every prophet is ranked higher than a friend, even if that friend were the most exalted friend.]

[Instead, this superiority is universal] because superiority between men is in accordance to their nearness to God (qurb-i ilahi) (SWT). All other excellences that one may have are below this excellence [that is nearness to God. And prophets are indeed nearer to God than anyone else. So then how could a Muslim friend have a share of the self-disclosure of the person of God while all the other prophets do not share that?]

Answer: In answer to that question, we say that the perfect ones (kummal) of this community have a share in that station [of the prophets, not that] they have “arrived” on that station. [We can consider them] excellent?????  had they “arrived” on that station. The highest point (nihayat) to which that the perfect ones of this community, which is best of all communities ascend (uruj), [that point] is the feet of the prophets (slm). Right below the prophets is [Hazrat Abu Bakr], the Great Champion of Truth, (siddiq-i akbar) who is the most excellent of all men [other than the prophets]. Even for him, the highest point of his ascent (nihayat-i uruj-i u) is at the feet of the prophet (nabi) who is ranked the lowest.

In summary, the perfect ones of this community, who follow [our Prophet Muhammad (slm) perfectly, (kummal-i tabian-i in ummat) fully share (nasib-i tamam ast) the station which is [right] below [the prophet’s station. They obtain] the perfections of the station that is below. [And thus they share from] the perfections of the station of beyond the beyond (maqam-i tahta az kamalat-i maqam-i fawq al-fawqa).  [In contrast,] the station of beyond the beyond is reserved (khass) for the prophets (slm).

Wherever the servant may be, the left-over food of his master will reach him. The far away servant receives that as a tufayli of his master. The servant who is near, he also cannot receive it without serving (khidmat) his master.

That is the caravan, which is there
I know that but I can not reach there
This is enough that I hear the sound
Of its bells, from afar.

dar qafila’i keh ust danim neh rasam
in bas keh rasad ze dur bang-i jarasam

This situation is analogous to the idea that the pir is superior to the disciple, as a general rule.

You may know that sometimes disciples (muridan) may have the idea that after they have attained the station of their pirs, they have reached equality (musawat) with the pir. However, the truth on this inter-relationship has been mentioned before.

Equality can happen only when the disciple “arrives on (wusul)” those stations [of his own pir], not when he “attains (husul)” those stations. It is because he attains [those stations] as a tufayli, [i.e. he receives blessings because of the pir in the same way as an uninvited servant accompanying the pir to an invitation also receives food.]

Let none mis-interpret this statement. [It does not] mean that a disciple (murid) can never become his pir’s equal. It is not like that. On the contrary, equality [between the pir and his disciple] is conceivable and it does happen some times. However, there is a fine distinction between “attaining (husul)” a specific station (husul) and “arriving on (wusul)” that specific station. Every disciple (murid) is not capable of realizing this distinction. The true unveiling (kashf-i sahih) and clear inspiration (ilham-i surih) is needed to understand this fine distinction.

Exalted Allah inspires with what is correct. Peace be on them who follow good-guidance!

Minha 15

The Reality of the “States”

Here the Mujaddid explains the question, “For a sufi, why does a specific state appear, disappear and then reappear again?”

Question: A dervish asked “What is the reason (sabab) behind it? While traversing this path, a hal or state appears and then at a later time, it disappears. After some more time the [same hal] re-appears and after some more time it again disappears. The same sequence continues to repeat as long as Allah wishes so. [How do you explain it?]

The Mujaddid explains that for each sufi, at every instant of time, a specific subtle center predominates. And he is colored by the hal of that predominant subtle center.

Answer: Man has seven subtle centers (latifa) and each subtle center has a unique period of time when it [predominates. And at that time, that specific subtle center] rules and administers (dawlat va sultan) [all the other subtle centers of that sufi.]

[To illustrate this point, it would be useful to take the case when a situation of predomination] appears on one of the subtle centers and a powerful hal descends there. Then, as a consequence, that traveler (salik) is totally (be-kulliyat) colored in the color of that [predominant] subtle center. And [that means that] that hal [of the predominant subtle center] spreads to all the subtle centers.

As long as that [predominant] subtle center reigns they [the rest of the subtle centers] remain in the same hal [that the predominant subtle center has]. When that [so-far-predominant] subtle center’s felicity [of being predominant] ends [i.e. that so-far-predominant subtle center is no longer predominant], that hal [where the rest of the subtle centers are colored by hal of the subtle center that has been predominant so far] also disappears [and as a result, the rest of the subtle centers are no longer affected by the hal of that so-far-predominant subtle center].

Note: Man is composed of ten subtle centers (sing. latifa, pl. lata’if). The first six are points on the physical body. They are 1. heart,  2. spirit, 3. secret heart, 4. arcanum, 5. super-arcanum, 6. soul (qalb, ruh, sirr, khafi, akhfa, nafs). The four others constitute the entire physical body (qalib). They are 7. fire 8. air 9. water 10. earth. These four latifas are also often considered as one single subtle center ― the body (qalib). If counted that way, then human beings have seven subtle centers.

p 36  l -6

After a while, if that same hal [that the subtle center had before] reappears [then it could re-appear in one of these two ways]

1.                  \item Either it [the hal that the subtle center had before] would re-appear on that “same” first subtle center. And [as a consequence] for that time, that traveller’s road to progress would be blocked.

2.                  \item Or it [that hal] would re-appear on “another” [second] subtle center. And then, [as a consequence,] the traveller’s road to progress would open up.

And after that hal would disappear on that new subtle center, the same inter-action would take place. It would happen in one of the two ways that happened before. [And this sequence could repeat itself for a while].

Such is what happens for all the subtle centers.

In contrast to the above scenario, if that hal “truly permeates” all the subtle centers (instead of “merely coloring” the subtle centers by its color) then an amazing transformation takes place. So far the sufi has been experiencing that hal transiently only. But now, the sufi attains that “station” where that hal is permanent.

However, if it happens that [that hal] truly permeates (sarayan) all the subtle centers (lata’if), then [the dervish] relocates from the hal to the maqam, station. [That is, the dervish, from being a possessor of the hal transiently, becomes a possessor of the maqam, station where he has the hal permanently.] And he is protected from decline (zawal) [from that exalted hal and instead, he enjoys that hal permanently.]

Allah (SWT) teaches the reality about hal. Salutations and peace be on the ‘noblest man’ [Prophet Muhammad] and his pure progeny!

Minha 16

Explanation of a Verse in the Koran

Here the Mujaddid is explaining a verse of the Koran.

Allah (SWT) has stated, You who have brought faith! Eat from that tasteful food (tayyabati) that I have given to you as provision (razaqnakum) and be grateful to Allah, if you truly want to worship Him. [Ya ayyuhallazina amanu! Akulu min tayyibati ma razaqnakum wa shukuru li’Lahi in kuntum iyahu tabudun.] (Koran 2:58)

Only a person who worships God and God alone may eat those delicacies.

This prerequisite (shartiyatu) [if you truly want to worship Him, in kuntum iyahu tabudun] has been set (yahtamilu) regarding eating i.e. eat from the delicacies from what I have provided for you, (akulu min mustaladhdhati ma razaqnakum.) Therefore, [that permission] is true for you only when you elect Allah [alone] for worship (takhussuhu bi ‘l-ibadati).

On the other hand, a person who follows his passions instead of God may not eat those. If he does, then he will be afficted with a spiritual disease.

On the other hand, if that pre-condition is not true for you and instead you are slaves of your [instigating] souls (anfusikum) and immerse yourself in fun and frolic, then you must not eat the delicacies. For you will be afflicted with an ailment of the inner realm (marda bi ‘l-maradi ‘l-batiniyyi).

Only a sufi who has purified his inner realm has attained that state where he worships God and God alone. While we are not worshipping idols, we are indeed sharing partners with God until we have purified ourselves internally through the sufi method. And until we have killed our instigating souls completely and have attained a spiritual re-birth, until we have realized God-realizatiom; we are still slaves of our instigating souls and we are partnering our passions as gods with God. So we have not fulfilled that pre-condition and so are not permitted to eat the delicacies.

And eating those delicacies would harm us until we have purified ourselves through the sufi path.

And the delicacy which is in the abidingness (al-mustaladhdhatu min al-marzuqati), that is like potent poison to you. However, when you will be healed of this ailment of the inner realm (al-maradu ‘l-batiniyyu) that is in you, it is then that you may eat the delicacies.

The Mujaddid replaces the word tayyibat by the word mustadhdhat, taking his cue according to the Kashshaf, the Koranic exegesis by Imam Zamakhshari.

This interpretation uses an explanation from Imam Zamakhshari.

The author of the [Koranic exegesis] Kashshaf, [Imam Zamakhshari] explained the word tayyibatu or pleasant here by the word mustaladhdhat or delicacies, noting what the word shukr or gratefulness may mean.

Minha 17

Can Sin Harm a Gnostic?

Here, the Mujaddid properly interprets an ancient sufi saying that has been often nisinterpreted into antinomian terms. Often the following saying had been interpreted to mean that once the sufi had realized God, he is free to commit any sin and that sin would not harm the sufi. That saying is:

Some sufi masters (qs) have said, He who knows Allah, no sin can harm him. (Man arafa ‘l-Lahu la yadurruhu dhanbun.)

The Mujaddid now presents several alternative explanations of this sufi saying all of which agrees to the sharia. The first explanation is:

It may refer to the sins which the gnostic (arif) committed before attaining God-realization (marifat) [i.e. those sins will not harm the sufi.]  It is because [conversion into] Islam erases [the sins] that happened before [conversion to the faith.] And real Islam (haqiqatu ‘l-islam) is to attaining realization of Exalted Allah [or God-realization] (marifatu ‘Llah subhanuhu) on the sufi path after attaining annihilation (fana) and abidingness (baqa). When such God-realization (marifat) is realized, all past sins are forgiven.

The Mujaddid now presents a second explanation that would also agree with the sharia.

That statement may also refer to the sins committed after attaining this God-realization (marifat). In that case, “sin” means “small sin” (al-dhanbu ‘l-saghiru) not great (al-kabiru). It is because that the friends of Allah are protected from those [great sins anyway]. And small sins are not harmful for him because the [sufi] does not engage in them repeatedly; instead he repents (tawba) and seeks forgiveness (istigfar) for them without any delay.

The Mujaddid presents a third explanation now that also agrees with the sharia.

Or the statement may also mean that he [the gnostic] never commits sins. It is because if no sin is committed, then it means that there is no harm. So it is a tautology.

The Mujaddid condemns the heretical meaning of this statement.

The deviants (sing. mulhid, pl. malahid) interprete this statement as meaning that the gnostic may engage in committing sins because sin will not harm him. [Those deviants who believe in that wrong meaning] are clearly wrong and they are patent heretics whose existence is a threat to the community (batil, zindiq).

The Mujaddid supplicates to God for protection from those heretics.

Paki book p 44 l 7

“They are the gang of the Satan! Take note! Verily the gang of Satan is ruined. Our Lord! Please do not renounce our hearts to the twisted path after having blessed us with good-guidance. And bestow on us mercy from You. Verily, you grant bountiful rewards.”

May the Haqq (SWT) bestow His mercy, blessings and greetings to our leader Muhammad and his progeny.

paki l. 10

I ask Allah the Generous, whose forgiveness knows no bounds, to forgive that gnostic ― who has realized the reality of Islam, tahaqquq-i haqiqatu ‘l-islam ― for the sins that he had committed before his God-realization (ma’rifat) unless they are because of oppressing the people or violating the rights of the people. Because He (SWT) is the lord of forgiveness and the heart of men are between His two fingers. He can change the heart however He wills.

All Muslims accept that when a nonbeliever accepts Islam, all his past sins are forgiven

Actually, all sins are forgiven with the acceptance of Islam except the sins for oppression of man and violating the rights of man. As it’s well-known [among Muslims]!

The Mujaddid qualifies that belief by saying that the mere external form of Islam is not sufficient to receive that gift of forgiveness, but that Islam must be the real and perfect Islam. That true Islam has two components ― the first is the external law and second is the internal purification realized through sufi tariqas.

Therefore, verily, the reality of the matter [i.e. Islam] and the perfection of its adornment [of Islam] is not [realized] in its external form (laysa limutlaqihi) [which lacks the spiritual side of islam, namely, sufism.]

upto this should be the 2nd part

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Minha 18

God Exists by His Person Not by His Existence

The Mujaddid is the only major figure to offer a “constructive criticism” to the ideas of Ibn Arabi and here he discusses how God exists, by His person or by His existence. Ibn Arabi had proposed that God’s person (dhat) is identical to existence (wujud) and that divine existence is the only existence that there is. Created things exist because they “borrow” their existence from God. This science of existential monism or wahdatu ‘l-wujud, it has held sway all over the Islamic sufi world.

With respect to existence, the Mujaddid proposes that God exists by his dhat, person, not by his wujud, existence.

Haqq (SWT) exists by (mawjud) by His own person (dhat), not by His existence (wujud). That is unlike the others things that exist by existences. So He (SWT) does not need to exist by His [attribute of] existence.

And he contrasts it with Ibn Arabi who proposes that the existence of God is “identical” to the person of God.

[Ibn Arabi] has proposed that existence of God is “identical (in) to the person of God, not “additional (za’id)” to it. So God does not need to depend on something else to exist.

In discussing Ibn Arabi’s proposition, first, the Mujaddid comments that there is no evidence behind Ibn Arabi’s proposition.

However, we need solid evidence to proove that the existence of God is identical to the person.

Second, Ibn Arabi’s proposition contradicts the decision of the Sunni community whose scholars propose that the existence of God is additional to His person.

And also we’ll have to face the opposition of many ulama of the mainstream Sunni community. It is because these great masters do not propose that the existence of God is identical [to the person of God]. Instead they recognize the existence of God to be “additional (za’id)” to person of God.

Now the Mujaddid compares what he proposed (God exists by His person) with what the Sunni ulama proposed (God exists by His attribute of existence that exists additional to His person).

First, he notes that if God’s existence is additional to His person, then God is dependent on things other than Him and that would negate the principle that God is all-powerful.  Then he notes that

We should not forget that if His existence is additional [to His person] (ziyadat-i wujud), then it implies that the Necessary needs others.  It is regardless of whether we say that the Necessary (SWT) exists by an [attribute of] existence that is additional to Him (be-wujud-i za’id-i wajib) or we say that He exists by His own person.

Second, if we qualify what the mutakallimuns call existence as an “ordinary qualifier” i.e. by the common understanding of the term existence instead of believing that God exists by His attribute of existence, which exists additional to Him as a reified attribute, then the proposition of the mutakallimuns is corrected.

On the other hand, if we take this existence as an “ordinary qualifier (ard-i am)” [i.e. we believe that God exists in the common understanding of the term existence instead if believing that God exists by His attribute of existence, which exists additional to Him as a reified thing], then the statement of the mutakallimuns [kalam-scholars] of the “people of truth” [i.e. the Sunni community] is rectified.

And at the same time, even the objection to the mutakallimun’s proposition that some people make also disappears. They argue that since God is independent and does not need anything else, He must be free of the need to have an attribute of existence in order to exist.

And the opponents [to the Sunni kalam-scholar’s proposition] object on the ground of God needing others. [They argue that since God is independent of others, then God must be independent of needing a hypostasized attribute of existence in order for Him to exist. So if we take existence as an ordinary qualifier then] that objection also vanishes.

Fourth/Then the difference between the Ibn Arabi proposition and the Mujaddidi proposition becomes clear.

And the difference between these two propositions becomes clear, i.e., [between the Mujaddidi proposition] that the Necessary (SWT) exists by His own person but [His attribute of] existence truly has no relevence there and [the Ibn Arabi proposition] that He exists by His own [attribute of] existence but this [attribute of] existence is established to be identical to His person.

 Existence of God: Ibn Arabi versus the Mujaddid Ibn Arabi Mujaddid God exists by His own existence but this existence is identical to His person God exists by His own person not by His existence, for He is beyond existence

This knowledge is an elect knowledge that Exalted Allah has uniquely granted me. Praise to Exalted Allah for this [great gift], and salutation and peace on His messenger!

Minha 19

God Is Unique In His Existence

God exists by His own person. The faylasufs and the mutakallimuns propose that God exists by His attribute of existence that is additional to His person. Ibn Arabi proposes that God is identical to His existence. However, the Mujaddid proposes that both are wrong, and instead God exists by His person.

The Necessary Being (SWT) is unique in that that He exists by His own person (dhat) and He need not depend on His [attribute of] existence in order to exist. He does so regardless of whether we maintain that God’s [attribute of] existence is “identical” to His person (ain-i dhat) or “additional” to His person (za’id-i dhat).

Therefore, we must not believe Ibn Arabi’s proposition that God’s person, dhat is identical to His existence, wujud. Nor should we believe that God’s existence is additional to His person, as the faylasufs or the mutakallimuns believe.

We must be cautious [to stay away] from [holding] either of those two [ideas, the ideas that the existence of God is] identical [to the person of God] or additional [to the His person] (ayniyat va ziyadat).

God’s habit is that whatever that is in His mind as prototype of contingent things or fixed entities in Ibn Arabi terminology, He creates a specimen of that in the contingent world.

The habit of Haqq (SWT) (sunnat-i haqq) is that whatever that may be on the Necessary level (martaba’i wujub) [as prototypes of created things in the mind of God], He makes an specimen (namuna) of that [prototype] appear on the contingent level. It does not matter if someone knows it or does not know it. He does make a model of such characteristic (anmudhaj-i in khassa) [according to the prototype in the mind of the Necessary] in the contingent world (alam-i imkan). It is because that the existence [that is in the mind of God] truly does not exist and instead [that existence] is a rational concept [lit. secondary intelligible] (keh wujud har chand mawjud nist va az maqulat-i thaniya ast).

Note: Ibn Arabists may explore this idea. The Mujaddid seems to be saying that whatever that is in the mind of God is a prototype. And each thing of this world is a worldly manifestation of its prototype. Also, the Mujaddid believes that things that are in the mind of God may be concepts wereas Ibn Arabi may believe something else.

Even then, God exists by His own person. On the other hand, created things exist by the attribute of existence.

Still if we consider God’s existence to be required (fardh) then He will exist (mawjud) by His own person not through some other [attribute of] existence [that exists apart from His person. This rule is] different from the [rule regarding the] existentness’s (mawjudiyat) of the other [existent things. The other existent things] depend on [God’s attribute of] existence (wujud) [to be existent (mawjud)]; their persons are insufficient [to cause them to exist].

 How Things Exist according to the Mujaddid God The Other Things God exists by His own person independently of any attribute of existence The other things exist by God’s attribute of existences

God is the creator of existences and He is not dependent on any attribute of existence in order to exist. God is unique in this characteristic.

Indeed, [in case of God], whatever existence that people believe is required for something to be existent (mawjudiyat-i ashya) exists (mawjud) then it will exist by His own person (mawjud be-dhat-i khod). He will not be dependent on some other existence [even the divine attribute of existence].  What is there to be surprised if the Creator of existences (khaliq-i mawjudat) (SWT) exists (mawjud) independently (be-istiqlal) by His own person and truly never dependent on [His attribute of] existence? Why even bother to discuss the real thing if the ignorant people think it is impossible! Exalted Allah inspires the truth!

Clarifications on Existence

Three groups have said “God exists with an existence that is ‘identical’ to His person” and that could be interpreted to mean that God exists by His own person, which the Mujaddid is also saying, and not by His existence. It only happens that God’s person is identical to His existence, but still He exists by His person instead of His existence. The Mujaddid gives us his comments.

Question: [All these three groups], even they have also said just what you [the Mujaddid] have said in the previous exposition. [These groups are,]

1.                  the sages (hukama) [i.e. the philosophers of the faylasuf tradition]

2.                  the Asharis and

3.                  some sufis [including Ibn Arabi] who have proposed that the person of God (dhat) is identical to His existence (wujud).

And that [what you, the Mujaddid, and those three groups, all of you have said] is that the person of Allah (SWT) exists by His person and not by His existence. Because, this statement [of theirs that “God] exists with an existence that is ‘identical’ (ayniyat) to [His] person” [could be interpreted to] mean that God exists by His own person, [which you are also saying, and] not by [His] existence. [It only happens that God’s person is identical to His existence, but still He exists by His person instead of His existence. Could you please comment on this matter?]

Answer: We say this much that on this matter, the Sunni community does not dispute them in a diametrically opposite manner (barabar). Instead, in answering them, the people of truth [i.e. the ulama of the mainstream Sunni community] should have said this much here that Allah (SWT) exists by His [attribute of] existence, not by His person, [and leave it here without saying any more confusing talks like the divine existence is additional or identical to His person etc. that they have said. Then there would have been a clear-cut difference in opinion with the philosophers on one hand who proposed that God’s existence is additional to His person and the Sufis with defective witnessings like Ibn Arabi on the other hand who proposed that God’s existence is identical to His person. Instead, the Sunni ulama have also proposed that this divine attribute of existence is additional to His person.]

In this context, it is incorrect (mustadrak) to establish that existence is additional. Because, since [the mutakallimuns] have established that existence is additional, it seems that why these two groups [Ibn Arabi on one hand and the mutakallimuns on the other hand] differ is not on the matter of existence [i.e. if God exists by His existence or not by His existence, because both agree that God exist by His existence] but instead in the matter of the attribute [wasf, of that existence], that whether it [that existence] is identical to His person or additional to His person.

The Mujaddid is asked why he calls the Necessary Being existent, when he proposes that the Necessary Being exists by His own person, not by His attribute of existence.

Question: When the Necessary Being (SWT) exists (mawjud) by His own person (dhat-i khod), then why call the Necessary (SWT) existent (mawjud)? It is because the meaning of the term existent (mawjud) means something that stands with wujud, existence [i.e. something that possesses the attribute of existence]. However, [you, the Mujaddid, have said that] that what is there [i.e. the Necessary Being] truly does not have any wujud, existence.

The Mujaddid answers that strictly speaking the Necessay Being is not existent. However, it can be said in a non-technical sense and when we mean that God possesses the attribute of existence, as opposed to God being existence Himself, which Ibn Arabi says.

Answer: Yes! There is no such existence in the Necessary (SWT) by which the person of the Necessary (dhat-i wajib) (SWT) exists (mawjud). However, it is fine to say that the Necessary exists [by an existence if by the term “existence”, we mean a type of] existence that is said about Him as an “ordinary qualifier (ard-i am)” and predicated (mahmul) derivatively (ishtiqaqan) [i.e. it is said that God possesses existence instead of saying that God is identical to existence]. It is fine to say something like that. Peace.

Minha 20

God is Incomparable

The Mujaddid talks on the incomparability of God.

We do not worship a God who comes within the compass of witnessing (shuhud), can be seen, or can be known or can be imagined or conceived. It is because that what can be witnessed, seen, known, imagined or conceived (mash-hud, mari, malum, mawhum, mutakhayyul)― that is a crafted and newly-originated (masnu va muhdath) thing just like him who witnesses, sees, knows, imagines or conceives.

I am searching for that morsel
That is more than a mouthful

An luqma ke dar dihan

The Purpose of Journeying and Wayfaring

The purpose of the sufi is to destroy all barriers that separate him from God.

The purpose of journeying and wayfaring (sayr va suluk) is to tear (kharq) the veil (hizb) until one arrives onto [the level of] “naked arrival (wasl-i uryan)”. Be it that veil that is related to the Necessary Being (wujubi) or be it that veil that is related to the contingent things (imkani). It is not that [the sufi] will shackle (qayid) or trap (sayid) the object that is being sought (matlub) [which is God].

You can't hunt the phoenix
O hunter! Pick up your net
He who puts his net out for a phoenix
returns home empty-handed

Anqa shikar kasi nashod va dam baz chin
ke-inja hamisheh bad be-dast ast dam ra

The Vision of God

The Mujaddid teaches us on the vision of God that the faithful will see in the last world. He believes in it but he does not ponder on its nature.

You should know that the vision (al-ru’iyata) [of Allah] in the last world is true. We believe in it but we do not ponder on its nature (kaifiyat) [because we are] unable [to describe it].

The elect have been given a type of the vision in this world.

The common people are unable to perceive (idrak) [that vision]. However, the elect have been allotted (nasiban) a share of that station [of the vision of God, in their earthly lives] although it is not called the vision (ru’iyatan).

Peace to them who follow good-guidance.

Minha 21

God is beyond vision and cognition

God may not be known for He must be experienced through meditation.

Whatsoever that is in the realm of vision and cognition (did va danish) is in chain (muqayyid) and lower than [the level of] sheer unboundedness [or pure meditation] (itlaq-i mahd).

The purpose is to become free from all chains. Therefore, you should search for that what is beyond vision and cognition. This transaction (muamala) [of searching for God who is beyond vision and cognition] is beyond the method of the intellectual gaze (nazar-i aql). It is so because the intellect considers it impossible to search for something which is outside the realm of vision and cognition

The secret of what is beyond the curtain
Ask the gnostic who is drunk [with love]
The[sober]  sufi  does not possess
The state of this exalted station

raz-i darun-i pardeh ze randan-i mast purs
kin hal nist sufi-i ali maqam ra

Minha 22

God is sheerly unbounded

Many Sufis experience mystic visions and claim that they have come to “know” God. They bind God who is unbounded. Contradicting them, the Mujaddid views God as a sheerly limitless, unbounded Being who is unknowable.

The unbounded [being who is God exists] as a sheerly unbounded Being which He is. (mutlaq bar sarafat-i itlaq-i khod ast). There is no chain (qayd) that binds Him.

So how can we explain this contradiction, between the Mujaddid and the Sufis with then wrong beliefs? The Mujaddid proposes that what those Sufis see is not God Himself who is too sublime to be known. Instead what they see is an imperfect likeness of God.

However, when He is manifested (zuhur) in the mirror of the chained things (marat-i muqayyad) [or when human beings, who are limited by the limitations imposed by the human mind, conceive of Him] then by the rule of that mirror [or human mind], His reflection (aks) is colored [by the color of human mind] and becomes chained (muqayyad) [by the shackles or limitations of the human mind] and brought down (mahdur) [from His sublime unbounded incomparable self to a lower form that can be conceived by the human mind.] In this way, [God] comes into the realm of [human] vision and knowledge.

What that those sufi masters [including Ibn Arabi] experience is imperfect vision and knowledge. Instead of being content with that, we should be aspiring for the true knowledge propagated by the Mujaddidi masters.

Therefore, to consider vision and knowledge (did va danish) sufficient (iktifa) is like considering a [mere] reflection of that desired object (matlub) sufficient. However, the highly ambitious are not satiated by such trivial things. Verily Allah (SWT) loves the limitlessly ambitious (maaliya ‘l-himam)!

Allah (SWT)! Include us among the limitlessly ambitious by Your love for the most exalted man [Prophet Muhammad]! Peace and blessings be on him and on his progeny!

Minha 23

Man is Higher than the Angels

The Mujaddid describes a vision that demonstrates that man is higher than the angels.

This is a vision that I had when I was just starting on the sufi path. I saw,

I am doing circumambulation (tawaf) in some place. And another group is also circumambulating along with me.  But the pace of their movement is so slow that in the time that I finished one circle of circumambulation (dur-i tawaf), that group had taken only two or three steps. Right on that instant, a thought emerged in my mind that this place was above in the heavens (fawqa ‘l-arsh) and the circumambulating group (tawaf-konand-gan) is a group of holy angels (mala’ika-i kiram).”

Allah sends peace and blessings on our prophet and on them [the angels]! By His mercy, Allah elects whomever He wills. Allah possesses great favors.

Tawaf: ????????

The celestial reality of the Kaaba is the Baitu ‘l-Mamur (Koran 52:4)

Minha 24

Friend: Not Above Human Attributes

The friends of Allah indeed have human attributes, they do not become angelic.

frailty

For the friends of Allah (SWT), their human attributes are the cupolas in which they hide. (qubab)[6]. As much as the rest of men need [worldly implements in oirder to do things], these masters also need (muhtaj) [those things, and they don’t make miracles all the time.] Their friendness (walayat) does not absolve them from that need [for worldly mediums]. Their anger is like the anger of the rest of men. When the prince of the prophets [Prophet Muhammad] (salam) have said, I also become angry like the others (aghdabu kama yaghdabu ‘l-bashar[7]) then how can the friends of Allah be free from it?

Similarly, these masters are like the rest of the human beings when it comes to eating, drinking, inter-action with the family, social behaviour etc. They are the same as the common people in terms of human needs. Allah has said about His prophets, I have not made their bodies such that they would not eat. (Wa ma jaalnahum jasadan illa ya’kuluna ‘l-taam). (Koran 21:8)

Those who openly disbelieved [i.e. the polytheists in Mecca and Medina in the Prophet’s time] used to say [mocking the Prophet], Why do these prophets eat food and shop in the marketplaces [just like the common people do] (ma li-hadha ‘l-rasuli ya’kulu al-taama wa yamshi fi ‘l-aswaqi)?”(Koran 25:7)

Therefore, they who have observed only the external appearences of the people of Allah have been deprived. They are facing great losses in both this world and the last world at that time when the good people will be separated from the evil people. (naqd-i waqt-i u ayad)

Since Abu Lahab and Abu Jahl saw only the external appearance [of the Prophet], they were deprived of the felicity of Islam. And it has cast them into endless loss. Those people indeed will realize felicity that does not look at the external appearances of the people of Allah. Instead their sharp sight reaches the qualities of the inner realm (sifat-i batin) of these saints, and that sight is confined to that inner realm (batin). They are like the river Nile in Eqypt in that the same water [affect people differently ― that water] is disaster (bala) to the people who are forbidden (mahjubin) [from divine mercy] while it is life-giving water for the people who are loved (mahbubin) [by God.]

Human imperfections appear very brightly in the friends of God, even more brightly than ordinary people or even sinners.

It is indeed amazing! The degrees in which human qualities appear in the people of Allah (ahl-i Allah) are not matched in the others. It is so because even little dirt and filth are seen more clearly in a clean and spotless surface. On the other hand even ample dirt and filth are not visible in a dirty and soiled surface.

This darkness permeates the totality of the common people while it only darkens the soul and the body of the elect.

Actually, darkness of the dark side of human qualities permeates the common people totally and they overwhelms the body, the heart and the spirit, [the soul and the rest of the subtle centers as well]. On the other hand, for the elect [i.e. who have attained the level of peaceful heart (qalb al-salim)] this darkness is limited to the soul and the body. And for the elect of the elect (khass al-khass) [i.e. those who have attained soul in inner peace (nafs-i mutma’inna)] even the soul is free from this darkness (zulmat); [for them this darkness] only affects the body.

Also, this darkness destroys the common people while it perfects the elect; it makes them able to relate to the common people and benefit them.

Also, this darkness ruins and destroys the common people while it perfects and brightens the elect. This very darkness of the elect removes the darkness of the common people. [This darkness] cleanses (tasfiya) their hearts and purifies (tazkiya) their souls. If this darkness were not there, the elect would not have been able to relate to the common people. And the door of giving benefit (ifadah) and receiving benefit (iftifadah) would be blocked.

This darkness is too little in the elect such that it may not pollute them, instead it causes them to progress.

Also this darkness (zulmat) in the elect is not in such a degree so that it pollutes them. Instead, the remorse that they feel and the forgiveness that they seek, they are in such a degree that as a result all their dirt and filth are cleaned and they attain even greater progress (taraqqi). The angels lack this darkness (zulmat) [in their constitution] and as a result their road to progress is blocked. [This darkness is actually light and] to call it darkness is like praise that looks like censure.

-7

In short, the human frailties of the sufi saints are totally unlike the human frailties of the common people.

The common people who are as ignorant as the four-legged animals think that the human qualities of the people of Allah (ahl-i Allah) are like their own human qualities and because of this belief they remain humiliated and deprived. This type of error is made when the unseen are presumed to be seen. Every station has its own unique distinctions and each place has its own unique characteristics.

 How does the darkness of human qualities affect on people? Common people Elect of God Elect of the elect Which subtle centers are affected? All subtle centers including the body and the soul Body and soul (all the subtle centers of the world of command are purified) Body only (even the soul is now purified) Effects Ruins and destroys Purifies

Peace to them who follow guidance (Koran 20:47)!  Allah! Give them peace who follow the Chosen One [Prophet Muhammad]. Peace and blessings to him and his  family.

Minha 25

Knowledge of Contingentness and Knowledge of Necessaryness

The Mujaddid teaches us on the knowledge of contingentness and knowledge of necessaryness (ilm-i imkani, maarif-i wujubi). He implores man follow the sufi path and attain God-realization. And the first step towards God-realization is to attain the sufi experiences of annihilation (fana).

As long as man is bound in the chain of his own intellect (ilm va danish) and remains colored by anything other than Allah, he is worthless. It is the pre-condition for this path to forget everything except Allah and it is a premise for this path to annihilate (fana’) everything except Allah.

Only when the love of the world will leave the sufi’s inner realm and he would realize abidingness (baqa’), only then God will appear there.

Until the mirror of the inner realm (batin) is fully cleansed from the color and grime of contingent things (imkan), it is not possible for Necessaryness to appear there. The reason is this ― it is impossible that the knowledge of contingentness (ulum-i imkan-i) are brought together (jama) with the knowledge of necessariness (maarif-i wujubi) just as it is impossible that two things of different kinds are brought together (jama).

Now the Mujaddid explains a deep sufi mystery and that is regarding the fact that when the sufi realizes abidingness and he attains ordination as a sufi guide, his knowledge of the things comes back and unites with his knowledge of Necessaryness.

Question: Sometimes Allah (SWT) elevates a gnostic (arif) to the honor that is abidingness (baqa) and then sends him doen [to the contingent world] to give perfection to the imperfect (naqis).

At that time, his knowledge of contingentness (ilm-i imkani) that he had lost before comes back. That is his knowledge of contingentness (ilm-i imkani) and knowledge of Necessaryness (maarif-i wujubi) are brought together (jama). However, according to your interpretation, that is like two things of different kinds being brought together. How do you rationalize that?

Answer: When the gnostic who is abiding in Allah (arif-i baqi bi-‘Llah) returns to the contingent world (alam-i imkan) then he becomes an isthmus between Necessaryness [God] (wujub) and contingent things (imkan) and he is colored by the color (rang) of the two stations. In this way, if the knowledge (ilm va maarif) of both of these stations are brought together (jama), then why can’t [you they?]

Because, [at that situation], the station where opposites are brought together (jama) does not remain one-and-only-one (ahad); instead it is transformed into several-in-one (mutaaddad). Therefore, that is not the union [of opposites.]

Minha 26

(ilm al-ashya)

The Mujaddid here explains a deep sufi mystery on the return of the knowledge on the things of this world. That knowledge disappears when the sufi realizes annihilation because at that time he forgets everything other than God.  However, when the sufi reaches the higher level of abidingness, this knowledge of things returns.

The Mujaddid asserts that this return does not create a defect the sufi’s perfection, instead it helps him to realize perfection.

The knowledge of the things (ulum-i ashya) disappears on the level of annihilation (martaba-i fana) ― if it [that knowledge] comes back after [the sufi has realized a higher level that is] abidingness (baqa) then it does not create any blemish in the gnostic’s perfection (kamaliyat-i arif). On the contrary, the realization of his perfection depends on this return.

He explains that the knowledge of the things reappears because

When the sufi realizes abidingness, he attains the character of Allah

Allah knows everything about everything including the worldly things.

As a consequence, the sufi also attains that knowledge of the worldly things.

[The knowledge of the things reappears] because having reached abidingness (baqa), the gnostic attains the character of Allah. The knowledge of the things is complete in the Necessary. [So logically,] if it would not be complete [in the Gnostic], it would be mean that his abidingness is defective. Such is the state of the gnostic who have been colored in the color of Allah [that he comes to know the knowledge of the things just as Allah knows it.]

The Mujaddid explains how man acquires knowledge ― in the process of acquiring knowledge, he is transformed.

[Now I am explaining] the mystery in it. [The method that] the contingent beings [e.g. man] attain knowledge is the following ― he acquires a “knowledge-form” in him [or in his brain or mind] (bi-husuli surati ‘l-malumi fihi)”. Therefore, necessarily, the knower is transformed (yataaththaru) by attaining the knowledge-form in him. The greater is the knowledge, the greater is the transformation in the knower.

Such transformation is harmful for aspirant seeking annihilation. So he must forget the knowledge of the things of this world. Why is it harmful? Think more

As a result, there may be more alteration or variegation (al-taghyyuru wa ‘l-talawwunu) in the knower [who is aspirimg for annihilation] and that is harmful for him [in his quest for annihilation.] Therefore, the aspirant must negate this knowledge [of the things] entirely and forget the things [of the world] completely.

In contrast, the knowledge of the Necessary never changes ― it is constant with time. So that knowledge may never harm the Gnostic.

However, the knowledge of the Necessary is not of the same nature. He is free from that situation where the knowledge-forms of the things known will enter Him. Instead, things reveal themselves to Him as soon as He conceives of them [lit., bi-mujarradi taalliqi ‘l-ilmi biha).

God does not change himself in His person, attributes or actions (dhat, sifat, afal)! Despite [the fact that] many different things happen in different times! (bi-huduthi ‘l-akwani).

The Mujaddid explains that the knowledge-forms may not transform the Gnostic who has realized annihilation and thus has been colored in the color of Allah. And that’s why knowledge of the things may not harm him.

The knowledge of the gnostic who attains the character of Allah becomes like this. Thedrefore, the knowledge-forms (suwwaru malumati ‘l-ashya’i) cannot penetrate (yahullu) him. So it [that knowledge-form] cannot transform (ta’aththura) him. Because of this, it [that knowledge-form] may not alter him or variegate him (fa-la taghyyura wa la talawwuna). Therefore, it [the knowledge of the things] does not harm him but instead grants him perfection.

This mystery (sirr) is among the deepest divine mysteries. Allah (SWT) honors among His servants whom He wants [by revealing this mystery], by the grace of His beloved [Prophet Muhammad] (may the most perfect and the most complete salutation and peace be on him and his progeny.)

Minha 27

The Station of Good-pleasure

makhluq created thing

ridha good-pleasure

nafs soul

The Mujaddid realizes the station of good-pleasure.

Twelve years from the beginning of the time period that I had repented (az ibtida’I zaman-i inabat) [and followed the sufi path], I was honored by the station of good-pleasure (maqam-i ridha). First, my soul realized inner peace (itminan). Then, by the by and through divine grace, I was favored by this bliss (saadat) [that is the station of good-pleasure]. And I was honored by this felicity [that is the station of good-pleasure].

I was able to attain this felicity until a ray (parto) of good-pleasure of God had appeared before me. Then my soul in inner peace (nafs-i mutma’inna) became well-pleased (radhi) towards my lord and my Lord also became well-pleased towards me.

Praise to exalted Allah! I am singing pleasant and blessed praises for Allah (SWT), such blessed praises that my Lord loves and in which He is well-pleased! May peace and blessings be on His messenger Muhammad and his progeny and progeny for eternity!

Question: When the soul (nafs) is well-pleased towards his Lord (mawla), why does it supplicate for and seek relief from difficulties?

Answer: For one to be well-pleased (radhi) with the act (faal) of the Lord (SWT) does not require him to be well-pleased (radhi) with His created things. Instead, there are many times when being well-pleased (radhi) on the created things is as bad as being faithless and disobedient to God (kufr va maasi).

At that time, being well-pleased (radhi) with the created things is ugly and being displeased with bad deeds [of the created things] is obligatory (wajib).

Instead then the servant faces a difficult situation. Therefore, there is no contradiction when one is displeased with Allah's created things but at the same time is well-pleased with Allah's creation [of their acts].

After thinking along the same lines, praying (dua) to relieve problems (bala-musibat) is found to be better (mustahsan). On the other hand, [there are] those who cannot differentiate between good-pleasure (ridha) with the act (faal) of God and displeasure with [the created things i.e.] those upon whom that act takes place (maful). They have remained confused over why does displeasure remain even after having attained good-pleasure (ridha).

They have played many verbal games (takallufat) to rationalize that confusion.

Indeed, they have [rationalized it by claiming that that] displeasure/hate is harmful for the “state” of good-pleasure (hal-i ridha) but not the “station” of good-pleasure (maqam-i ridha).

Instead, the truth is what I have described, which I have learned through inspiration (ilham) from Allah.

Peace towards them who follow guidance.

Minha 28

Checked 1-7-07

Reciting the Koran When Following the Imam

The Mujaddid discusses his insight into the important matter in jurisprudence of reciting Sura Fatiha behind an imam. The Hanafi school says that the imam’s recitation of Sura Fatiha in the salat is sufficient, so the followers should remain silent. All the other schools say that the followers must also recite Sura Fatiha ― they draw their decision from a well-known Hadith, There is no salat without Sura Fatiha. (La salata illa bi-fatihati’l kitab). (Bukhari, Muslim)

The Mujaddid demonstrates that the decision of the Hanafi school is correct here.

For a long time, I had been wishing so that I could find an acceptable reason in the Hanafi school for reciting Suratu ‘l-Fatiha when praying behind a imam. It is because reciting the Koran when following the imam is obligatory (fardh) at all times. So it does not seem intelligent to reject real recitation (qirat haqiqi) and practice virtual recitation. (qirat hukmi) At the same time, it comes in the Hadith, “There is no salat without Sura Fatiha[8]."

However, since I follow the Hanafi school, I decided not to stop reciting Sura Fatiha. And I started to count it with a kind of disciplined training and striving (riyadat va mujahida). It is because rejecting one school of sharia in favor of another school is a type of rejection (ilhad).

At last, through the grace of my following the Hanafi school, the Haqq (SWT) manifested the reality of not reciting Sura Fatiha behind an imam. And through my insight (nazar-i basirat), I learned that virtual recitation is better than real recitation. It is because the imam and the followers, they both mutually agree (ittifaq) to stand together as supplicants (munajat) [in the salat.] Like it is said, For the worshipper in salat supplicates to his Lord  [lianna al-musalliya yunaji rabbahu.] (???)

In salat, [the followers] make the imam their spokesman. So whatsoever speech that the imam recites during the salat, he recites it on behalf of the group. It is like when a group of people appears before a magnanimous king to fulfill a need of theirs and elects a spokesman among themselves so that he can request it on behalf of everyone there. In such a setting, if someone else also talks while the spokesman is talking, that would be considered poor manners and that could displease the king. Therefore, the virtual speech (takallam-i hukmi) of this group through the spokesman is better than real speech (takallam-i haqiqi) of those people [individually.] It is the same situation when the group recites [the Koran] (qirat) praying behind an imam. It is because it disturbs the peace (shaghab), lacks manners and creates disunity (tafriq).

Many of the matters where the Hanafi and the Shafii schools differ are of this type. Its outer and formal aspect (zahir va surat) accedes to the Shafii school but the inner real (batin va haqiqat) aspect is according to the Hanafi school.

It was manifested to me that in the divergences of opinions in kalam, the truth is on the Hanafi side. For example, they recognize regard God’s engenderingness (takwin) as a real attribute (sifat-i haqiqi). While apparently it seems that engenderingness is not a real attribute; instead) it is the result of the attributes of powerfulness and desiringness (qudrat va irada). However, we learn via fine consideration and the light of perspicacity (daqt-i nazar va nur-i firasat) that that God’s power-to-engender is a distinct and separate (alihadeh) attribute. Other matters may be formed via this analogy. In most of the matters where the jurists diverge (khilafiyat-i fiqhi), the Hanafi school is right. Only in a few matters, the Shafiis are right.

Note:

Imam Maturidi

The Mujaddid describes his vision that Maturidi school of dogmatic theology is more accurate than the Ashari.

In a mystic vision, (waqia) Hazrat Prophet (slm) stated, “You are a mujathid of the science of kalam.” After this incident, I started to form a distinct opinion in every matter of kalam. For most of the matters on which there are differences between the Ashari school and Maturidi school, at the first glance it seems that the truth is along the Ashari line. But when it is contemplated with a fine perspicacity or a keen gaze (hunur-i firasat va huddat-i nazar), then it becomes clear that the truth is along the Maturidi line. I believe that in all the matters of kalam on which there is a dispute [that the Maturidis have with the Asharis], the Maturidis are correct.

The truth is that because they perfectly follow the shining sunna, these masters have attained this high honor. Their opposition has not been able to attain this as they gave pre-eminence to the philosophical views. However, both of these groups [the Asharis and the Maturidis] are among the people of truth.

The Greatness of Imam Abu Hanifa

%Mabda va Ma’ad Hakikat Kitabevi Minha 28, 49:8

The Mujaddid teaches us on the greatness of Imam Abu Hanifa.

How can I write about the high stature of Imam Abu Hanifa? (daad) He was the wisest of these wise men! The greatest Imam! The leader of the perfect ones! Be in it knowledge, be it in abstinence (wara’) or be it in Godwariness, (taqwa) he was the formost among all the mujatahid imams,[9] more than Shafii, Malik or Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

Imam Shafii said, “The fuqaha, [the ulama of Islamic jurisprudence,] all of them are family members (‘iyal) of Abu Hanifa who depend on him for their living.” (alfuqaha’u kulluhum ‘iyalu Abi Hanifa.)[10]

It is said that when Imam Shafii used to visit the shrine of Imam Abu Hanifa, then he used to reject his own ijtihad (or interpretations in Islamic practice) and stopped observing his own practice [that contradicted the ijtihad of the Great Imam.] And he used to say, "It embarasses me that in his presence I do anyth­ing that is contrary to his decision." [At that time,] he used to suspend both reciting Sura Fatiha when praying behind a imam and reciting the dua qunut in the fajr prayer. It was Shafii who could properly appreciate his greatness.

When Hazrat Jesus (slm) will descend [to the earth] in the future, he will practice according to the school (madh-hab) of Abu Hanifa. Khwaja Muhammad Parsa (qs) wrote in the Fusul Sitta, "This very honor is enough for him that one of the great prophets will practice according to his school. A thousand other honors cannot be compared to this honor."

Our Hazrat Khwaja [Baqibillah] (qs) said: "For some time, I used to disagree with the Imam [Abu Hanifa] and recite Sura Fatiha [when praying following an imam.] Finally, I saw the Great Imam in a dream one night.

I saw that he came to me clothed in a resplendent robe and recited a poem,

This signification is sufficient
That there has been many friends of God in my school

At that time, I stopped reciting Sura Fatiha behind the Imam.

Minha 29

Perfect and Imperfect Guides

The Mujaddid teaches us about when a perfect sufi shaykh ordains an imperfect disciple to teach the tariqa. Normally, a disciple is ordained as a shaykh only when he has reached perfection. How can an imperfect being bring a disciple to perfection?

Sometimes it happens that a [sufi shaykh who has realized] perfection (kamil) ordains (ijazat) an imperfect [disciple] to teach the tariqa. And as he [the imperfect teacher]  is taking his disciples to perfection (ijtima), that imperfect teacher’s own journey (kar-i an naqis) also reaches completion (itmam) [i.e. the imperfect teacher realizes perfection in the sufi path].

Khwaja Naqshband (qs) ordained (ijaza) Mawlana Yaqub Charkhi (ra) to teach the tariqa before he [Mawlana Yaqub] had reached the rank of perfection. And told him, "O Yaqub, give to the people that what you have received from me." Actually, it was Alauddin Attar (qs) who nurtured Mawlana Yaqub Charkhi (ra) to perfection.

That's why Mawlana Abdur Rahman [Jami], in his book the Breath of Fellowship [Nafahat al-Uns] at first considered the Mawlana [Ya’qub Charkhi] as a disciple of Khwaja Alauddin Attar and only later acknowledged that his transmission (nisbat) joined Khwaja Naqshband [as Mawlana Ya’qub’s connection with Khwaja Alauddin was far stronger than than the Mawlana’s connection to Khwaja Bahauddin].

If a perfect one ordains a disciple to teach the tariqa when he has realized only the first rank (darajat) of friendness then the ordination is of that nature. Then the disciple is in a way perfect and in another way imperfect.

And the disciple who has attained two or three ranks of friendness becomes like that also ― he is perfect in one way and imperfect in another way. It is because before reaching the end of the ends [the final level], all the initial levels can be called perfect in one way and imperfect in another way.

Even with that, when a perfect master ordains a disciple to teach the tariqa after he had attained only the initial level [of friendness] then it does not depend on him [the disciple] realizing absolute [or the final level of] perfection.

You may know that although imperfection is an obstacle for ordination still then when a perfect one who is a perfection-giver [as well, i.e. one who is capable of making his students perfect] (kamil-i mukammil) [or a highly God-realized master] selects an imperfect disciple as his deputy (na’ib) and considers that man's hands as his own hands. Then being imperfect is not harmful.

explain

Allah (SWT) knows the real meaning of everything, all of it!

Minha 30

The three levels of yad dasht

The Mujaddid teaches us that yad dasht has three levels.  Literally, the Persian word yad dasht means ‘to be mindful’.  And this mindfulness refers to the sufi being mindful of God.

Now the Mujaddid divulges the mystery that is the first level of yad dasht.

The term yad dasht means perpetual presence (dawam-i hudur) of the divine person (SWT). Due to the all-comprehensiveness of the heart (jamiyat-i qalb), sometimes people who have attained only the station of the heart (muradbab-i qulub) may attain this [state of yad dasht]. It is because whatsoever that is in the totality of man (kulliyat-i insan), all that is established to be in the heart alone (qalb-i tanha). However, it may be in the undifferentiated form (ijmal) in one [i.e. the heart] and in the differentiated form (tafsil) in the other [i.e. man].

Therefore, on the level of the heart, it is possible for the presence of the person of God (hudur-i dhat) to be perpetual (dawam) as well. [And that is the first level of yad dasht.] However, this refers to merely the outer form (surat) of yad dasht, not its inner reality (haqiqat). It may be that whatsoever that the masters have said about the ‘insertion of the end in the beginning’ (indiraj-i nihayat dar bidayat) points to this outer form (surat) of this yad dasht. The inner reality (haqiqat) of yad dasht is realized after the soul is purified (tazkiya-i nafs) and the heart is cleansed (tasfiya-i qalb).

Now the Mujaddid teaches us on the second level of yad dasht.

You may take that the presence of the divine person (hadrat-i dhat) is on the level of Necessaryness (martaba-i wujub) [which is the second level]. Then the person (dhat) brings together (jami) all the attributes of Necessaryness (sifat-i wujubiya). Then this level [of Necessaryness] is witnessed (bi-shuhud-i in martaba) after traversing all the levels of the contingent things (jami maratib-i imkani). And along with it, [the second level of] yad dasht is also realized.

And this meaning is also realized in the self-disclosure of the attributes (tajalli-i sifati). It is because to observe the attributes in this way is not a bar for the presence of the divine person of God (SWT) (hudur-i hadrat-i dhat).

The term “the divine person” may be interpreted to be God, the disengaged one-in-numberness (ahadiyat-i mujarrad), who is beyond all the names (asma), the attributes (sifat), the transmissions (nasab) and crossing-overs (itibar). In that case, yad dasht may be realized only after traversing all the levels of the names (asma), the attributes (sifat), the transmissions (nisbat) and crossing-overs (itibar) that can be conceived [where lies only bewilderment].

P 58 paki

Wherever I have talked about yad dasht, I have taken the meaning that was mentioned last.time [which is the mindfulness of God who is the disengaged one-in-numberness (ahadiyat-i mujarrad) i.e. the third level or in terms of Ibn Arabi, the fiurst entification or wahdat.]

It is not even appropriate to use the term presence (hudur) on that [third] level. It is not concealed to the people who possess it, [the station of yad dasht.]  It is because that [level of God the disengaged one-in-numberness, which is the level of the third meaning of yad dasht] is above both presence (hudur) and absence (ghaybat).

 Level # Level of Level of yad dasht 3 God, the disengaged one-in-numberness (ahadiyat-i mujarrad), who is beyond all the names (asma), the attributes (sifat), the transmissions (nasab) and crossing-overs (itibar) self-disclosure of the person of God (tajalli-i dhati). This 3rd level of yad dasht may be realized only after traversing all the levels of the names (asma), the attributes (sifat), the transmissions (nisbat) and crossing-overs (itibar) that can be conceived. 2 God on the level of Necessaryness (martaba-i wujub) who brings together (jami) all the attributes of Necessaryness (sifat-i wujubiya) self-disclosure of the attributes (tajalli-i sifati) 1 The heart Outer form (surat) of yad dasht: Perpetual presence of the person of God (dawam-i hudur-i dhat). The term ‘insertion of the end in the beginning’ (indiraj-i nihayat dar bidayat) points to this outer form (surat) of yad dasht   inner reality (haqiqat) of yad dasht: It is realized after the soul is purified (tazkiya-i nafs) and the heart is cleansed (tasfiya-i qalb).

In order to qualify [an attribute] by the word "presence (hudur)", you need to observe an attribute before you. This meaning of the term yad dasht is that what has been described as the second meaning, [and God is considered to be on the level of Necessaryness (martaba-i wujub), which the Ibn Arabi level of the second entification or one-and-allness or wahidiyat.]

This level is the last level of yad dasht that can be witnessed and that has a presence. And if you consider that, it is the final level.

Along this line of reasoning, it is possible to say that yad dasht is the last level in consideration of witnessing and presence (shuhud va hudur).

For beyond this level there is only bewilderment and ignorance.

Above this level, there is no witnessing and presence (shuhud va hudur). Instead, there is bewilderment, ignorance or knowledge (hayrat, jahl, marifat). But it is not that knowledge which you consider knowledge ― that knowledge of yours is the knowledge of acts and attributes and this station is far above the knowledge of the names and the attributes,. [instead, it is the station of the necessary person of God who is the disengaged one-in-numberness, dhat-i wajib-i ahadiyat mujarrada. And this knowledge is the ultimate knowledge that is the knowledge that “the knower knows nothing”.]

Allah give peace and blessings to [Prophet Muhammad], the noblest of all men (sayyidi ‘l-bashari) and his pure progeny.

Minha 31

The Highest of All Stations: the Station of Good-Pleasure

The highest of all stations is the station of good-pleasure.

Only after you have traversed through the well-known ten stations [of the sufi path], you may complete the tariqa and reach the end of the ends (nihayat al-nihayat). The first station is repentance (tawba) and the last station is good-pleasure (ridha). On the levels of perfection, no station can be conceived that is higher than the station of good-pleasure. Even the vision of God in the last world [is not on a higher level.]

The reality of the station of good-pleasure will be manifested in the last world.

The reality of the station of good-pleasure (haqiqat-i maqam-i ridha) will be manifested in the last world (akhirat). The reality of the other stations cannot be conceived in the last world. There repentance (tawba) is meaningless, abstinence (zuhd) has no relevance, God-reliance (tawakkul) does not form its form, and patience (sabr) cannot be predicated. However, take note! Gratefulness (shukr) will indeed be realized there. However, that gratefulness will be merely a branch from the branches of good-pleasure (az shuab-i ridha), not something separate from it.

How Can A Perfect Man Be Imperfect?

Even a perfect man sometimes seems to be imperfect; here the Mujaddid describes the source these imperfections and explains that they are not sources of harm like the imperfections in an imperfect man.

Question: Sometimes you can detect longing (raghbat) for the world in a perfect man who is also a perfection-giver [i.e. someone who can train a student to become perfect] (kamil-i mukammil). Sometimes you even see in him [behavior] that shows that he lacks [a wholehearted] God-reliance (tawakkul). You may even see him displaying impatience that shows that he lacks patience (sabr). You may even see him acting as if he does not have good-pleasure towards Allah (ridha). How can you explain it?

Answer: Attaining these stations is related (makhsus) to the heart and the spirit (ruh). For the elect (khwass), this station is related to the soul in inner peace (nafs-i mutma’inna). However, [those characteristics] do not apply to the [physical body or ] the mold (qalib). Only the hardness (sawrat va shaddat) [of the boby turns into softness].

Once someone asked [the sufi saint Hazrat Abubakr] Shibli, “You claim to be in love [with God.] Then how can you have a big body that shows that instead of being in love [with God, you are a glutton in love with food instead]?

In answer, Hazrat Shibli recited the following poem:

My heart is in love, but my body does not even know it
Had it known it, it would never have become so big?

Ahabba qalbi, wa ma dara badani
Wa law dara, ma aqama fi ‘l-simani

Therefore, if [negative traits] inconsistent with those [sublime] stations are seen in the mold (qalib) of a perfect man

If you can find [a negative trait] in the behavior of a perfect man that is inconsistent with his not realizing these stations [of perfections] then that does not imply that there are imperfections in his inner realm.

On the other hand, in a man who is not perfect, imperfections of those stations are seen in the totality of that man. Both their inner realms and physical bodies (zahir) long for the [temporal] world. Their exteriors and interiors (zahir, batin), they both long for the earthly world (dunya). Both in their outer forms and inner essences (surat va haqiqat), there are things [like impatience or instability] that are contrary to God-reliance (tawakkul). Both in their heart and mold, you may observe impatience and instability (bi-taqati va idtirar). Disgust (karahat) [towards God’s decree] is seen in both his spirit and body (ruh, badan).

This is how the Real (SWT) has concealed his friends. And has deprived (mahrum) most of the people from the perfections (kamalat) of these masters.

L -6, paki

Why is there any imperfection left in a perfect man?

The Mujaddid exposes why there remains any imperfection left in a perfect man.

There is a fine wisdom is leaving these things [imperfections] in the friends. There are [two reasons],

1.                  \Item Trials: So that the truth does not stand distinct from falsehood. That is required for this world which is the place for trials. [ So it is necessary that truth does not become distinct from falsehood. If it were then the trial will become too easy.]

2.                  \Item  Progress: The other wisdom in these [imperfections] remaining in the friends is their progress (taraqqi) although these [imperfections] are only in form (surat). If these [imperfections] leave the friends completely then their road to progress would be blocked. And they would remain stagnant [in a station] as the angels are. [Because then there will be no conflict between the higher soul and the lower soul. It is this conflict that gives man an opportunity for ascending spiritually.]

Peace to them who follow guidance (hidayat) and take up on following [Prophet Muhammad] the chosen one. Allah gives the most complete and the most perfect peace and blessings to him and his progeny.

Minha 32

The Friends: Their Outside and Inside

One should ignore the outer appearance of the friends of Allah and instead focus on their inner qualities.

O Lord (Ya Elahi)! What is it that you have done to your friends (awliya)? Their inner realm (batin) is like the elixir of immortality of Hazrat Khidr (zulal-i khadir). Whosoever drinks a drop of [that elixir] attains endless life. And their outer appearence (zahir) is like lethal poison. Whosoever sees that [outer appearence] will have endless (abadi) death.

They are such that their inner side (batin) is mercy and the outer side (batin) is pain. Those who see their inner side (batin) become one of them and those who see their outer side (zahir) become misguided (badkish). Outside they are like the common men but inside they are like the elect angels. In the outside (surat), they are on the saddle [and journeying on the earth] but in the inner meaning (mana), they are [journeying] in the celestial spheres [in the heavens far above the earth]. Those who sit on their company are saved from misery (shaqawat) and their companions attain felicity.

They are the congregation of Allah. Take note! Verily it is the congregation of Allah who will succeed. (Ula’ika hizbuLlah. Ala! Inna hizbaLlahi humu ‘l-muflihun). (Koran 58:22)

Allah! Give peace and blessings to our leader Muhammad and his family!

Minha 33

The Friends of Allah are Concealed

God has concealed His friends.

Allah (SWT) has concealed His friends so well that even their exteriors (zahir) have no news of the perfections of their inner realms (kamalat-i batin). How can then other people know about them?

God’s friends’ inner realms are unqualifiable. So how can the qualifiable inner realms of the others know the unqualifiable inner realms of the friends? Indeed, even the exteriors of the friends that are qualifiable do not know of their own inner realms.

Their inner realm (batin) is “without what manner” (bichun) itself. And it has been qualified with a quality (nisbat) that is on the level of “without what manner” and “without-how” (bi-chuni va bi-cheguni). Since their inner realm (batin) is from the world of command (alam-i amr) that quality is also “without what manner”. Therefore, the exteriors, which are totally immersed in “what manner”, how can those find the inner reality [of the interiors of the friends]?

Instead it is more likely that since he does not know [this quality] and he lacks a relationship [with this quality], he [i.e. his exterior] could deny the receipt of this quality. Or it may be that he [i.e. his exterior] could recognize the receipt of this quality but he will not know what [thing] is related to it [this quality] (mutaallaq-i an kist). Instead what happens often is that that thing [i.e. the quality that qualifies his inner realm] denies him with whom he///it truly has the relationship.

These happen because this quality (nisbat) is very exalted and the quality of the exterior (zahir) is too low in comparison. Even the interior (batin) itself is pre-dominated by that quality (nisbat). And it [the interior of the friends] becomes free from [the limits inmposed by] seeing and knowing (did va danish). He does not know what [is that quality that] he has and with what [quality] he has that (darad va be-keh darad)?  Therefore he has no alternative but [to claim] incapacity [when asked about this quality]. Since it is true that he has no real knowledge (marifat).

The Mujaddid now explains a saying of Hazrat Abu Bakr.

Because of this the champion of truth [Hazrat Abu Bakr] (ra) has said, Perception is the incapacity to perceive perception [al-ajzu an darki ‘l-idraki idrakun.]” Here perception (idrak) refers to a unique quality (nisbat-i khassa) that one is incapable to perceive.

It is because the one who perceives (sahib-i idrak) is predominated (maghlubun) [by his state]. And he may not comprehend his perception [i.e. what he perceives]. And people other than him may not know his state that have been described above

Minha 34

Deviant beliefs

The Mujadddid discusses his unveiling on deviant beliefs. He sees that a sufi who holds beliefs contrary to the mainstream Sunni Islam is not a true sufi.

Someone dressed like a sufi was involved in the misfortune that is [holding] deviant beliefs (bidat-i itiqad).

I was troubled (taraddad) by him. Suddenly I was seeing in a vision that all the prophets (slm) have gathered together and commenting on that man: "This man is not among us (laysa minna)"

Then I remembered about another man about whom I was also troubled. When I asked about him, the prophets (slm) said, "He is among us (kana minna)"

I seek refuge in Allah (SWT) from deviant beliefs and seek refuge (panah) from mocking His honored prophets .

Minha 35

Explanation of the Mutashabihat

I’ve been shown that the terms nearness (qurb), withness (m aiyat) and encompassment (ihata) of Exalted the Haqq that are in the Sagacious Koran are among the “allegorical” or mutashabihat words of the Koran. e.g. hand, face etc. The words first (awwal), last (akhir), manifest (zahir), non-manifest (batin) and the likes of them are also the same.

The Mujaddid proposes that the allegorical verses have deep meanings that cannot be fathomed by the human mind that is limited.

So we say that the Haqq (SWT) is “near” us, but we do not know what that nearness means. Similarly, we say (that He is) the first but we don't know what does that “first” means. The meaning of that nearness and firstness does not come within the bounds of our knowledge or understanding (ilm va fahm). The Haqq (SWT) is untainted by those [imperfections. And indeed He is even] higher (bartar) than that. And [He is indeed even higher than] that what we know through our unveilings (kashf) and witnessings (mushahida). Almighty God elevates himself higher that that and he is pure from those [limitations of the human mind that seek to humanize him or limit him] as well.

The Mujaddid criticizes both the misguided Sufis and the ulama who mis-interpret those allegorical verses. And that include both the mis-guided sufis who wrongly interpret those allegorical verses through unveiling-derived knowledge, and the ulama who interpret them allegorically.

Some Sufis have realized the meaning of “nearness” and “withness” via [false] unveiling. They consider the Haqq to be “near us” and “with us” [spatially.] This is not nice! They have stepped into the school of mujassima or corporealists. And some of the ulama have interpreted those terms by allegorical interpretation (ta’wil). For example, by “nearness,” some have meant “cognitive nearness” (qurb-i ilmi). They have made allegories of that in the same way that they have made an allegory of “hand” by “power” (qudrat) and “face” by “person.” (dhat)

Exalted Haqq knows the truth! Peace to them who follow guidance!

Minha 36

Emulation of the Prophet

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I sometimes prayed the final prayer of the night or the witr prayer on the first hour of the night and some other times on the last hour of the night.

One night I was shown that for the devotee who goes to sleep with the intention that he will pray the witr prayer on the last hour of night, the angel in charge of writing good deeds for him writes good deeds on his book of deeds for the entire night until the time that he prays the witr. Therefore, it is better to delay the witr prayer.

Still, nothing is acceptable to me on the matter of praying the witr prayer early or late without following authority of the ‘noblest of men’ [Prophet Muhammad] (slm).

I do not consider any blessed deed equal to emulation [of the Prophet]. The blessed prophet sometimes prayed the witr prayer at the early hours of night and sometimes on the last hour of night.

I find felicity if I can emulate the Blessed Prophet (slm) in any of his deeds even if that emulation is only only in form.

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About some sunna practices, some people give greater importance to some deeds with the intention of being awake for the whole night.

I am amazed at their short-sightedness! Without the emulation [of the Blessed Prophet], I don't buy being awake for a thousand nights even for half a grain of barley.

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The last ten days of Ramadan, I perform itiqaf i.e. I sequester myself in the mosque and worship God. At this time, I gathered my sufi brothers together and told them, “Don’t make any intention except the intention to emulate the Prophet. Else what benefit is in our seclusion and cutting off our relationship with the world (tabattul va inqita)? Instead, if we can emulate a single sunna then in return we are willing to accept a hundred misfortunes.

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Actually, without the benefit of the emulation of the Merciful Prophet (slm), even if we do a thousand instances of seclusion and cutting off relationship with the world, it will not be accepted. As some poet have composed,

He who has an evergreen flower garden in his home
Why does he need gardens or the season spring?

An ra keh dar saraI nigar ist farigh ast
Az bagh-i ulushan va tamasha-i laleh zar

May Allah (SWT) grant us the ability to emulate the Blessed Prophet perfectly. The most perfect and complete perace and blessings be on him and his progeny!

Minha 37

Love of the Person and Love of the Attributes

The Mujaddid discusses his saying that he is so absorbed in the love of the Prophet that there is no room to love God.

Once I was sitting together with a group of dervishes. Absorbed in my love for that master [Prophet Muhammad] (slm), I exclaimed, "Love of that master [Prophet Muhammad] (slm) have overwhelmed me to such an extent that I love the Haqq (SWT) because He is the Lord of Muhammad." Everyone present was perplexed at this saying but none dared to challenge me.

And the Mujaddid contrasts his saying with the saying of Rabia Basri about her loving Allah so deeply that she does not have any room to love the Prophet (slm).

This saying of mine contradicts to the saying of Rabia Basri. She had said: "In a dream, I told that master [Prophet Muhammad] that I am so overwhelmed in the love of the Haqq (SWT) that I have no room left to love you."

Both Rabia and the Mujaddid made those statements whule intoxicated in the love of God. However, the Mujaddid’s statement is more genuine.

Both statements indicate [that they have been made in the station of] intoxication (sukr), but my statement has genuineness (asalat). While she [Rabia] spoke in the very midst of intoxication; I spoke at the beginning of sobriety (sahw). And while she spoke [while being] on the level of attributes of God (martaba-i sifat), I spoke after returning from the level of the person of God (martaba-i dhat).

Note: In his sayr illa Allah part of his suluk, The Mujaddid climbed to the level of the attributes, like Rabia did. But he progressed even further, he climbed to the level of the dhat, person. And he started his return. And it is then that the Mujaddid made this comment.

On the level of the person of God, there is only bewilderment and ignorance. On the level of the attributes, there is love and knowledge.

On the level of the person (martaba-i dhat,) there is no room for this kind of love. There all transmissions (nisbat) are on the level of brevity (kotahi) [i.e. undifferentiated or ijmal level]. Everything there [on that level of undifferentiated one-in-numberness or dhat-i mujarradah] is only bewilderment (hayrat) and ignorance (jahl), instead, the [sufi] denies love happily (be-dhawq) because he does not consider himself to be worthy of that love in any way. Love and knowledge [of God] (mahabbat va ma’rifat) are on [the level of] the attributes and that’s all; [they are not on the level of the Person.]

Those intoxicated Sufis like Rabia were not on the level of undifferentiated one-in-numberness or dhat-i mujarradah. The first level entification is oneness-crossing-over-into-one-and-allness or wahdat, which is the level when some fine germs of attributes or itibarat have emerges ― ane her love of God was really the love of the divine itibarat.

The love of the person (mahabbat-i dhati) about which they [those intoxicated sufis like Rabia] spoke, what they meant is not the one-in-number person (dhat-i ahadiyat), but the person wherein some “crossing-overs” (i’tibarat) [fine germs of attributes] have emerged.

Comments: In Ibn Arabi science, God transforms himself to become the creation in five successive transformations. Initially, God is an undifferentiated one-in-number being. The first level of entification is is wahdat where the undifferentiated being of God “crosses over” into a state where fine germs of attributes or itibarat emerges. On the second level of entification, these itibarat develops further into full-fledged attributes.

Yes! Those intoxicated Sufis like Rabia mistakenly thought that they were in love of the person of God but actually their love was the love of the divine attributes.

Thus the love of Rabia was on the level of attributes. The Exalted the Haqq inspires that what is correct! Salutation and peace be on the [Prophet Muhammad,] the prince of the prophets and his pure family!

Minha 38

Honoring Subjects and Its Teachers

The Mujaddid comments on the high level of the sufi guide in importance.

The excellence of a science (fadilat-i ilm) is commensurate with the excellence of the field of study of the science. The greater is the importance of the field of study, the higher ranked is its science. Therefore, science of the inner realm (ilm-i batin) of the sufis is ranked higher than science of the outer [or physical] world (ilm-i zahir), which is the lot of the ulama of outer science. Similarly, outer science [i.e. science of the Koran, hadith, sharia and kalam] is ranked comparatively higher than the science of hair-cutting or weaving.

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Therefore, it is essential to be aware of the high level of the pir ― his level is several times higher than the teacher who teaches the outer science. Similarly, it is essential to be aware of the high level of the teacher of outer science ― his level is several times higher than that teacher who teaches barbering or weaving. And there are such rankings in level between every branch of outer science.

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The teacher of the science of kalam (ilm-i kalam) and jurisprudence (fiqh) is ranked higher than the teacher of grammar (nuh va sarf). Similarly, the teacher of grammar is ranked higher than the teacher of philosophy. It is so because philosophy is not a science that we need. Many of its topics are nonessential and useless. They have taken only few topics from Islamic books and even then they have misapplied them out-of-context. Therefore, they have proven themselves to be the 'wise fools.'

There is no room for intellect here. The prophetic method is beyond the method of intellectual consideration (tur-i aql-i nazari).

Paki 64, -2

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Obligation to the pir iiiiiiiii

You may know that the obligation to the pir is above the obligation to any one else, except for the divine blessings and the prophetic favors, after the obligation to exalted Allah for His blessings and the obligation to His messenger (slm) for his favors. Actually, everyone’s real pir is the messenger of Allah (slm) himself.

Although the the physical birth is from the parents, the spiritual (manuwi) birth is from the pir. The physical life is only for a few days but the spiritual life is ever-lasting (???).

Pir is him who cleanses the spiritual filth of his disciples using his own heart and the spirit (qalb va ruh) and nd purifies their inner realm (ishkambeh). When face-turnings (tawajjuhat) are given to the disciples, it is sensed that the spiritual filth of the disciples dirties the giver of the tawajjuh [i.e. the pir.] And this effect lasts for a long time.

Pir is him by whose intermediation man reaches God and that is above all the felicity of this world and the last world. Pir is him by whose intermediation the instigating soul (nafs-i ammara) [of the disciple], which is intrinsically dirty (khabis), becomes holy and hallowed. And it is transformed from being instigating (ammara) to being in inner peace (itminan). And from faithlessness that is its innate disposition (kufr-i jibilli), [the instigating soul] reaches true Islam (be-islam-i haqiqi). Like a poet has written:

What can I say [on its benefits]
If I explain it, it will be boundless!

Gar bi-gu’im

If a pir accepts [a disciple then the disciple] should consider himsel fortunate. On the other hand, if a pir rejects a disciple then the disciple should consider it as his own mis-fortune. I seek refige from Exalted Allah from from this!

The good-pleasure (rida) of the Exalted Haqq follows the good-pleasure (rida) of the pir. Until the disciple can submerge (gom nisazad) himself in the good-pleasure of the pir, he cannot have the good-pleasure of the Haqq.

Pir’s dis-satisfaction is the disciple’s calamity. Every error he may do may be remedied but nothing can remedy the injury that is incurred due to the [displeasure of the] pir. No adversity may harm the disciple more than this injury due to the pir. We seek the refuge of Allah from this!

page 59, -2

The result [of injuring the pir] is having defects in holding the creed of Islam (mutaqadat-i islamiyya) and idleness in performing the injunctions of the sharia

What can one say about the states and ecstasies (ahwal va mawajid) that may come to his own inner realm? If any physical symptom (athar) from a hal remains in existence, even after having hurt the pir, you may consider it to be a satanic deception that takes step-by-step to ruin (istidraj). At the end, it [that symptom] will turn out to be bad and its end result will be disaster (darr).

explain athar, above

Peace towards them who follow guidance. Wa ‘l-salamu ala mani ttabaa ‘l-huda.

Minha 39

The Six Subtle Centers

The Mujaddid discusses on the six subtle centers and their locations on the physical body.

The heart (qalb) is from the world of command (alam-i amr). It was put in a deep union and a passionate love (taalliq va taashshuq-i khass) with the world of empirical things (alam-i khalq). And then the heart was bestowed to a bodily part (mudgha) on the left side of the breast. It is like when an emperor falls in a passionate love with a lowly woman who cleans excrements (konnas) and for this love he goes to her home.

And the spirit (ruh), which is more subtle than the heart (qalb), is among the things of the left ?????? should be right (ashab-i-yamin) [wheras the heart center is located on the right??? Should be left side of the breast[USER2] ]. Three more subtle centers (lata’if) [i.e. the secret heart (sirr), arcanum (khafi) and the super-arcanum (akhfa)], which are located above the spirit center (latifa-i ruh) ― in the light of the aphorism "the best thing is that which is in the middle, khair-u ‘l-umur-i awsatuha” ― have been made noble.

The more subtle is the subtle center (latifa), the more is it related to the middle. However, the subtle centers (lata’if) the secret heart (sirr) and the arcanum (khafi) ― they are located in the two sides of the subtle center super-arcanum (latifa-i akhfa) ― one on each side ― one on the right and the other one on the left. And the soul (nafs) ― which is adjacent to [the faculty of] sense perception (mujawir-i hawas) ― is related to the brain (damagh).

PICTURE ON THE LOCATION OF THE LATIFAS IN THE MUJADDIDI SYSTEM

While progressing, all the subtle centers move towards the super-arcanum center one subtle center a time.

For the heart (qalb) to progress (taraqqi), it must arrive on the station of the spirit. And to the stations that are above the spirit. Similarly, for the spirit (ruh) or [the subtle centers] that are above it to progress, they must reach (usul) the stations which are above them.

However, in the beginning, this arrival (usul) is in the way of [many] states (ahwal) [that are transient] and in the end, in the form of [a] station [that is permanent]. And the soul (nafs) progresses (taraqqi) only when it reaches (usul) the station of the heart (qalb) as [many transient] states (ahwal) at the beginning and as [a permanent] station (maqam) in the end.

p 60 l -4

Finally, all the six subtle centers join on the station of super-arcanum and flies off together towards God leaving the body empty. It is then that the sufi realizes annihilation.

At the end of this program (kar-i in), these six subtle centers (lata’if) arrives on the station of super-arcanum (akhfa) and all, in unison (bi-ittifaq) starts (qasd) to fly towards the world of holiness (alam-i quddus). And they leave the “mold” center (latifa-i qalib) empty (khali va tahi). However, that flight is as [many different transient] states (ahwal) at the beginning and as [one single permanent] station at the end. And at that time, he [the sufi] realizes annihilation (fana’).

Note: All sufi tariqas deals with the ten subtle centers (lata’if). Five of them ― heart, spirit, secret, subtle and arcanum (qalb , ruh, sirr, khafi, akhfa) ― are of the ethereal realm the world of command (alam-i khalq).??????? world of empirical things?????? However, they have corresponding seats in the human body. In the Naqshbandi Mujaddidiya tariqa, they are well-defined points on the surface of the skin on the breast.

Qalb is width of fingers below the left breast, ruh is width of two fingers below the right breast, sir is width of two fingers above the left breast, khafi is width of two fingers above the right breast and akhfa is above the breasts right in the middle. In other tariqas, these five subtle centers (lata’if) are located in different points in the breast. In the Qadiria tariqa, qalb is still width of two fingers below the left breast, ruh is .............. In the Chishti tariqa, qalb is still width of two fingers below the left breast, ...............

Qalb is connected with Prophet Adam, ruh with Prophet Noah, sir is with Prophet Moses, khafi is with Prophet Jesus and akhfa is with Prophet Muhammad (slm).

Qalb is mentioned ―――-- times in the Holy Koran.

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Death Before Death

Paki 66, last line

The Mujaddid explains the mystery of ‘death before death’ ― it’s the separation of the said six subtle centers from the mold.

What the sufis have called "death before death" is the separation of the said six subtle centers (lata’if) from the body (latifa-i qalib). The mystery of why vibrations and feelings are still in the body even after those six subtle centers (lata’if) are separated is described elsewhere. That is to be looked for in the proper place. There is no room for it to be described here in depth. Instead, it has been described here in brief.

Paki 67, 4

Sufi’s journey is perfect when all his six subtle centers journey together, but it is not required.

[In order to journey (sayr)], it is not necessary that all subtle centers (lata’if) would be brought together (jama) in the same station and then would fly (tiran) [together]. Sometimes it happens that the heart (qalb) and spirit (ruh) both do this in unison (ittifaq). Or sometimes three! Or sometimes four!

Only for the Sufis with the Muhammadan friendness, all their subtle centers may journey in unison.

However, what had been described before [i.e. six subtle centers are brought together and journey in unison] is the most complete and perfect [way to journey. And that method] has been reserved for [the Sufis who are to realize] the Muhammadan friendness (walayat-i muhammadi) (slm). Other than that, other [methods of journey happen] for other types of friendness [e.g. Abrahamic friendness, Mosaic friendness.]

Paki 67,8

The six subtle centers may jouney more.

These six subtle centers (lata’if) may separate from the body, reach the station of holiness (maqam-i quddus), may become colored (talawwun) by its color and then they may return to the mold. And they may establish a connection (taalliq) [to the mold] that is beyond the connection of love. And they may accept the rule of the mold.

And if his subtle centers do make that journey, the sufi realizes abidingness.

And after [such] distinction [for his subtle centers, the sufi] experiences a sort of annihilation (fana) and become like dead [i.e. his old spiritual-self dies]. At that time, [the sufi is] illuminated by an elect self-disclosure (tajalli-i khass). And he starts living a new life. And he realizes the station of abidingness in Allah (maqam-i baqa bi-‘Llah). And he attains the character (akhlaq) of Allah.

Then the sufi may progress to one of these two possibilities --- either he may attain the capability to teach others or he may not.

1.                  CAPABLE OF TEACHING: If at that time, if he is bestowed a resplendent robe (khilat) and brought down to the earth (alam), then it would be as if he drew near and then approached (az dunuw be-tadalli khwahed anjamid). And it would create the stepping-stone (muqaddama) towards his realizing the ability to make others perfect (takmil).

2.                  INCAPABLE OF TEACHING: On the other hand, if he doesn't return from there to the earth then it would be as if he would not approach after he drew near (tadalli bad az dunuw hasil na-shod), and he would become one of the reclusive friends (awliya-i uzlat) [who lives apart from society in a state of seclusion]. Then his hands will not be able to nurture (tarbiyat) the aspirants (taliban) or give perfection to the imperfect [i.e. he would not be able to teach others].

All these are stories of the beginning and the end (bidayat, nihayat) that has been told in insinuations and allusions (ramz, ishara). It is not possible to comprehend that save cutting through these waystations.

Peace to them who follow guidance and take up the emulation (mutabaat) of the ‘chosen one’ [who is Prophet Muhammad] (slm).

Minha 40

Speech of the Lord

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Haqq (SWT) has spoken only one utterance (kalam) from the beginning of eternity until the end of eternity (azal ta abad). That utterance cannot be partitioned or subdivided. For it’s not possible for Him (SWT) to be silent or to be dumb.

The surprising matter is that from the beginning of eternity until the end of eternity, there is only a moment in that place [which is the realm of God.] Time does not flow over Him (SWT). Within one moment, what can be spoken but one one-in-all utterance that cannot be subdivided (kalam-i wahid-i basit)?

This single utterance has become

That one one-in-all utterance has become the origin of so many types of [individual] utterances [each] in the context of multiple taalliqs or “relationships”.

For example, if it has a taalliq of commandingness (mam[f3] ur), then a command originates. Or if it has a taalliq of prohibitingness (manhi), then it is called a prohibition (nihi). Or if it has a taalliq of news-givingness (ikhbar), then it becomes news. In short, [that God speaks on not only the news of the present, but also] the news on the past and the future ― that throws people into confusion.

This \x

The priority and posteriority of the ‘turner [of time]’ [God] (dal) indicates the priority and posteriority of the ‘things that are turned [or put in sequence in that linear time]’ (madlul). It is not something hard to understand! It is so because the past and the future are special qualifiers (sifat-i makhsus’-i dal) with which the ‘turner [of time]’ qualifies [or puts into sequence the events in that linear time. And He qualifies the events] in that moment that has been stretched (inbisat) [from a wholistic one-in-all model of time into a linear model of time stretching from the beginning of eternity to the end of eternity.]

And in the view of the ‘things that are turned [sequentially in that linear time] (madlul)’, since that moment [when God speaks] is unchanged and it [that timeless moment] has not been stretched out (inbisat) [to create a linear time as it has been stretched out in the mundane, temporal realm], then there is no past or future there [in that timeless moment when God speaks.]

Now the Mujaddid gives an analogy to illustrate

The philosophers say, “The essence (mahiya) of a thing may have a distinct and separate (alihadeh) [characteristic] with respect to [that thing’s] external existence (wujud-i khariji). [However, the essence] may not have that [same characteristic] with respect to [that thing’s] mental existence (wujud-i dhihni).”

[So we see that] a thing can have contradictions it its qualities and inseparable qualifications (tabayin-i sifat va lawajim) with respect to its existence and it-ness (huwiyat).

And we also see that] the ‘turner [of time]’ and the “things that are turned [sequentially in that linear time]’ are [already] truly separate from one another (dal va madlul keh fi’l haqiqat az yek digar juda’ and).

Therefore, they are also permitted [to differ in their qualities and inseparable qualifications] as in the previous [illustration].

Infinitesimally small period of time

What has been told is that it is only a moment from the beginning of eternity to the end of eternity. And that [they have said one moment] is due to the insufficiency of the language (tangi-i ibarat). Actually, we may not even say “one moment”. [That time period is so infinitesimally short that] to call it even a moment would be hard.

The Beginning and the End Are Together Outside Of The Circle Of Contingentness (Da’ira-i Imkan)

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You should know that among those contingent beings who have realized the station of nearness (qurb) of the Divinity (ilahi) (SWT), those ones who have [realized the highest level of nearness, they would] step their feet outside the circle of contingentness (dai’ira’-i imkan). And there they would find the beginningless beginning and the endless end (azal va abad) unified (muttahid) together.

While on his stations of ascent (maqamat-i uruj) on the night of heavenly ascension (miraj), Hazrat [Muhammad] the seal of the messengers (slm) found Hazrat Jonah in the belly of the fish. And he found the storm of Hazrat Noah taking place. (slm) And he saw the people of paradise in the paradise and the people of hell in hell. He found five hundred years [of earthly time] equal to half a day after entering the paradise. [The Prophet] saw a rich companion named Abdur Rahman ibn Auf[11] entering paradise late, so Hazrat Prophet asked him the reason for coming late and he gave news of his own trials and tribulations (aqibat va mihn) [that he suffered on the way]. He [the prophet]) saw all that in one moment ¾there was neither past nor future.

Through the grace of [Prophet Muhammad] the friend of the Haqq (sal), I have experienced such “states” (i.e., unveilings and mystic visions) once in a while. [In one those mystic visions,] I [the Mujaddid] saw the angels prostrating before Adam (slm) and at that time their heads were not raised from the prostration. I saw the angels of the [highest paradise] illiyin not performing these prostrations, they were not ordered to prostate. In my vision, they were absorbed [in seeing that. All these past events as well as] all the happenings (ahwal) that will happen in the last world, they were all seen in that same [one single all-inclusive] moment.[_4]

GET some from the book Faith practice piety

Heavenly Ascension of the Prophet versus Ascent of the Friend (miraj-i nabi, uruj-i wali)

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You should understand that the Prophet (slm) had attained this state [of heavenly ascension (miraj)] both bodily and spiritually (jasadi, ruhi). And he witnessed [all that he witnessed in that heavenly ascension] through both his own eyes and through inner eyes (basr va basirat).

There were others [who were highly God-realized sufi masters or friends of Allah and they experienced ascents (uruj) that were a sort of heavenly ascension and they experienced them] via the intermediation [of Prophet Muhammad.] And this state [of ascent] came to their hands as they faithfully followed [the Prophet]. (be-tariq-i tabiyat). However, all others [but the Prophet, i.e. the friends of Allah see them] spiritually only ― not through bodily eyes (basirat).

The caravan where my friend is
I know that but I can't go there
????????So his songs
?????????I want to hear from here

Dar qafilaI keh ust danam tarsam
In biskeh rasad ze dur bang-i jarsam

Allah give him [Prophet Muhammad] and his progeny the most complete and perfect salutations and peace!

Minha 41

Engenderingness

The predominant Ashari school of kalam considers the attribute of engenderingness to be an additional attribute.

Engendering or bringing things into engendered existence (takwin) is a real attribute (sifat-i haqiqiya) of the Necessary Existence. The followers of Imam Abul Hasan al-Ashari regard engenderingness to be an “additional attribute” (sifat-i idhafiya). They consider the attributes of powerfulness (qudrat) and desiringness (iradat) to be all that is needed for bringing the cosmos into existence (ijad).

In contrast, the Mujaddid rules that engenderingness is a real attribute that is separate from powerfulness and desiringness. And he explains why it is so.

Actually, engenderingness is a separate real attribute (sifat-i haqiqiy-i alihadeh) in addition to powerfulness and desiringness.

Its clarification is that the attribute of powerfulness [enables one either] to do an action or not to do that action. [These two options] are both right whereas desiringness (irada) means deciding on one of the two options for power i.e. either doing it or not doing it. Therefore, the rank of powerfulness is above the rank of desiringness.

The rank of engenderingness that they [the Maturidis] consider to be a real attribute is below the rank of powerfulness and desiringness. The task for this attribute [of engenderingness] is to bring that object into existence about which [the attribute of desiringness] has already decided that it would come to existence.

Powerfulness (qudrat) fixes (musahhih) His action [i.e. decide what can be done]; desiringness (irada) specifies the action (mukhassis) [i.e. decides if that fixed action will or will not occur at all] and engenderingness brings that action into existence (mawjid). Therefore, we have no alternative but to accept engenderingness [as a separate attribute].

 How things are created: The Mujaddidi view Level Attribute For what action that attribute is needed 1 Supreme level Powerfulness (qudrat) fixes (musahhih-i faal) His action [i.e. decide what can be done] 2 Middle level Desiringness (irada) Specifies the action (mukhassis-i faal) [i.e. decides if that fixed action will or will not occur at all] 3 Low level Engenderingness (takwin) brings that action into existence (mawjid-i faal)

The Mujaddid explains engenderingness by drawing an analogy with the concept of the capability to perform the action (istatat maa ‘l-faal).

For example, the analogy of [engenderingness] is the “capability to perform the action” (istatat maa ‘l-faal), which the Sunni ulama have established to be in human beings. There is no doubt that [God creates] this capability [to perform the action] after [God has exercised] both [His attributes of] powerfulness (qudrat) and desiringness (irada). And the realization of bringing something into engendered existence (tahaqquq-i ijad) depends on this capability. [That is, this capability enables man to make or do something.] Instead, that capability [to perform the action] necessitates the action [of bringing something into existence. That is, when God gives man the capability to perform the action, He also makes man perform the action.] Not doing the action is not possible then [when God has already given man the capability to perform the action].

Now the Mujaddid discusses engenderingness, which is after both powerfulness and desiringess. God’s attribute of engenderingness necessarily creates that what God has chosen employing His attribute of desiringness. But this is not obligation.

The state of the attribute of engenderingness (takwin) is the same in that “bringing into engendered existence” (ijad) necessarily must be there (be-tariq-i ijab). However, this obligation (ijab) [to engender whatever that God has chosen after employing His choice of desiringness] does not create any defect within the Necessary. It is because it [this obligation] is exercised (thubut) after the realization of [the attribute of] powerfulness (qudrat) i.e. [after God has decided] whether the action will be done or left undone; and the attribute of desiringness (irada) has made the choice (takhsis) [between those two choices].

Now the Mujaddid contrasts his opinion with the opinion of the philosophers of the faylasuf tradition and Ibn Arabi. They proposed obligation (ijab). That is, God is obligated to create whatever has been pre-destined to be created and vice versa.

And [my position] contradicts what the sages of philosophy have proposed. They regard the first choice [i.e. the choice to do it] as necessarily true and regard the second choice [i.e. the choice not to do it] as impossible to be true. They also deny [the attribute of] desiringness (irada). According to them, it is clear obligation (sarih dar ijab). [That is, they propose that God is obligated to create what is destined to be created, whether He dersires to create it or not to create it is immaterial.]

Paki 71

Allah the almighty and exalted soars higher than this! On the other hand, an obligation (ijabi) that is found after connecting to desire and determining one of the two choices (taalliq-i iradat va takhsis ahad al-maqdurin) [i.e. that what the Mujaddid has proposed] corroborates free will; it does not deny free will.

The unveiling of [Ibn Arabi,] the author of Futuhat, also agrees with the sages [i.e. the philosophers.] On the matter of powerfulness (qudrat), they consider the first condition (shartiya) [that God will create that what has been pre-destined to be created] to be necessarily true and the second condition [God will not create it] to be impossible to be true. However, this proposition [of Ibn Arabi and the sages] supports obligation (ijab). [That is, God is obligated to create whatever has been pre-destined to be created and vice versa]. And as a result desiringness (irada) has no function because God does not have to specify one of the two choices [between creating the thing and not creating that thing].

If we establish that engenderingness is obligated (ijab) to engender [whatever God Himself has chosen via His attributes of powerfulness and desiringness] then by that interpretation, God is free from even a taint of obligation.

65,7

This difference is very fine and no one before me has explained it. The Maturidi ulama have accepted this attribute [of engenderingness as a real attribute] but they have not discussed this fine point. Among all the scholars of the kalam (mutakallimun), Maturidis are the only ones who have been honored with this knowledge because they follow the illuminated sunna of the “chosen one” [Prophet Muhammad] meticulously. I also follow these great masters [that are the Maturidis.]

Allah (SWT) keep us steadfast on their true articles of faith by the grace  of the prince of the prophets [Hazrat Muhammad]. The most complete and perfect peace and blessings be on him.

Minha 42

Vision of Allah

The Mujaddid affirms the mainstream Sunni creed that the faithful (mu’min) will see Allah (SWT) in the last world.

That the faithful (mu’min) will see Allah (SWT) in the last world is true. This is a matter that except the mainstream Sunni community, none of the sects of Islam or the sages of philosophy allows it. The others deny because they equate the unseen (ghayb) to the seen (shahid). And that is erroneous.

When the object that is seen is “without what manner” and “without how” (bechun va becheguneh) [i.e. unqualifiable] then that vision would also be “without what manner” and “without how” (bechun va becheguneh) [i.e. unqualifiable].  You should believe (iman) in it but you should not spend a lot of time pondering (mashgul) on its nature (kayfiyat).

Presently, this mystery has been revealed before the elect of the friends (khass-i awliya). Whatsoever they [the elect of the friends] see, although that may not be the true vision [of God] (ru’iyat), it is still some sort of vision. As the hadith says, “As if you are seeing Him [ka-annaka tarahu]”.

P 72, l 1

The Mujaddid describes the nature of that vision.

In the future, [in the day of last judgement], all the faithful will see Allah (SWT) with their own eyes but they will not perceive Him. Just like it says in the Koran, Eyes will not be able to understand Him [la-tudrikuhu ‘l-absaru]. (Koran 6:103)

However, they will only attain two things,

1.                  They will attain knowledge that is certain (ilm-i yaqini).

2.                  Through that vision, he will attain pleasure (iltidhadh).

These two things will be with (lawazim) the vision. And except these two, all other things will be gone.

This is a most abstruse (aghmadi) point in kalam. The rational method is unable to prove or conceptualize (taswir) it. The ulama and sufis (alim va sufi) who follow (mutabaan) the prophets have found it through the light of the perspicacity (nur-i firasat) attained from the light of prophetness (nur-i nubuwat). And they have found it along with the other matters of kalam that reason is incapable or bewildered in establishing. The Sunni ulama have only the light of the perspicacity (nur-i firasat). But the sufis [who are alims in adiition to being sufis] attain unveiling and witnessing (kashf va shuhud) along with the light of the perspicacity (nur-i firasat).

Note: Only the Sufis who are also alims attain both kashf va shuhud as well as nur-i firasat. The Sufis who are not alims at all do not attain nur-i firasat. That is what the Mujaddid explained in his writings.

Unveiling and Perspicacity

The Mujaddid explains the concept of perspicacity. First, he

explains the difference between unveiling and perspicacity.

The difference between unveiling and perspicacity (kashf va firasat) is just like the difference between estimation and sense perception (haddasiyat va hissiyat). Perspicacity (firasat) transforms concrete things (nazariyat) into estimated things (haddasiyat) and unveiling (kashf) in turn transforms those [estimated things] into things perceived by senses (hissiyat).

All the other matters where the Sunni community contradicts the rationalists (keh iltizam-i tur-i aql) ― they are also similar. They [the ulama of the Sunni community] have known it through the light of perspicacity (nur-i firasat) and witnessed it through true inspiration (kashf-i sahih).

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If the [ulama try to] explain those matters clearly (idah) then they would only be able to conceptualize those [matters] and make [people] aware (taswir va tanbih), they will not be able to establish [those matters] via consideration and proof (nazar va dalil). It is because rational consideration (nazar-i aql) is blind in establishing or conceptualizing those [matters.]

I am surprised at those ulama! Those ulama think that they will establish those matters via arguments (istidlal) and overwhelm the opposition. However, they will fail. Instead, their opposition will think that just as their arguments (istidlalat) are weak and faulty, their decisions are also weak and faulty.

P 67

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As an example, the Sunni ulama have established on "being capable of action (istataat maa ‘l-faal)”. [For them,] the light of perspicacity and true unveiling (nur-i firasat va kashf-i sahih) have established this true proposition. However, the evidences and proofs that they have brought are weak and incomplete.

Their strongest evidence in support of that matter is that the accidents in two points in time does not subsist (adam-i baqa-iy irad ast dar du zaman). It is because if accident subsists [in time] then that necessitates that accident subsists by accident [instead of by substance] and that is impossible.

The opposing party has considered this evidence weak and incomplete and so they have firmly held the belief (yaqin) that that proposition is also faulty. But they have not understood that the belief [of the Sunni ulama] in this matter, as well as in the other similar matters ― [all those beliefs] have been derived by the light of perspicacity (nur-i firasat) from the light of prophetness (nur-i nubuwat).

67,9

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But it is our weakness that for consideration by the opposing party, we propose estimation and vision (haddsi va badihi) as a concrete proof (nazari). And we even try to establish it [that alleged proof] through elaborate insincere arguments (takalluf).

Its result will be that the opposing party will not accept our estimation and vision as proofs. In that case we have nothing else to do except to propagate these ideas and bring them before others. Those with the nature of a good Muslim will accept it blindly. On the other hand, those who do not have that good fortune in their lot will deny it.

The Exalted Rank of the Maturidi School

Paki 73, -7

The Mujaddid teaches us on the the exalted rank of the Maturidi school of the dogmatic theology. The more dominant school is the Ashari school but the Mujaddid followed the Maturidi school himself.

How superior are the followers of Shaykh al-islam Abu Mansur Maturidi among the ulama of the Sunni community! They have considered it enough only to describe the purposes (maqasid). And they have carefully distanced themselves from fine philosophical debates.

Among the ulama of the mainstream Sunni community, Shaykh Abul Hasan al-Ashari is the first one to deliver his propositions with fine philosophical arguments. He sought to establish the creed of the Sunni community through philosophical arguments.

It is daunting task and it makes the opposing party more ambitious. As a result, they ridicule the leaders of the religion and leave the path of the [pious] predecessors (salf).

Allah (SWT) keep us steadfast on the decided decisions of the people of truth, which are from the lights of the prophetness on whose owner be the most perfect and complete peace and blessings.

Minha 43

Certitude

On matters of kalam or dogmatic theology, the Mujaddid’s beliefs are in accordance to the creed of the Sunnis. He believes in it with a firm certitude much firmer than the certitude with which he believes in the existence of the sun and the moon!

God has commanded, Propagate the blessings of your Lord [wa amma bi-nimati rabbika fa-haddith] (Koran 93:11) And so I am describing this great blessing.

My creed on the matters of the science of Islamic dogma or kalam (mutaqadat kalamiya’) is identical to the creed of the “people of truth” [.e. the mainstream Sunni community]. I believe this creed in such a firm certitude (yaqin) that when I compare that certitude to the certitude that I have on self-evident (badihiya) matters, [that certitude on self-evident matters seem to be so weak] that it seems like a uncertain matter, or instead a dream (zann, wahm).

As an example, when I compare the certitude that I have received from every matter of kalam with the certitude that I have regarding the existence of the sun then the certitude of the second type [that is on the existence of the sun] pales before the certitude of the first type [that is on the matters of

It does not matter whether the rational people (arbab-i aqul) accept my saying or not, indeed I think that they will not accept it. It is because this debate is beyond method of rational consideration.

What's the mystery? The Mujaddid explains that the belief in the heart on the matters of the faith comes to him directly from the Haqq as inspiration. On the other hand, the belief on the existence of the sun and the moon comes to his heart indirectly. At first his organs of perception gather the knowledge and then transmit it to the heart. And the belief that he gains directly in his heart from the Haqq is much stronger than the belief that he gains indirectly in his heart through his organs of perception.

The real meaning of this affair is this. Certitude is a matter of the heart. The certitude, for example, that is attained regarding the existence of the sun is attained through the sense organs. These organs are like spies who gather information in various ways and transmit to the heart. [These sensory organs are] like spies [who collect information and transmit to the authority whi.] On the other hand, the certitude that is regarding any of the matters of the science of kalam, the heart attains it [directly] without the intermediation of any one [of the sense organs. And the heart] receives it as an inspiration (ilham) from God as a transmission (talaqqi) [directly without any intermediary.]

Therefore, the first type of certitude is the knowledge of certitude (ilm al-yaqin), and the second type of certitude is the vision of certitude (ain al-yaqin). There is a great difference between these two levels; [the first level, knowledge of certitude is far stronger than the second level, vison of certitude.] Like a poet have written,

Does hearing resemble seeing?

Shanideh ki bud manand dideh?

Minha 44

When the sufi aspirant is free of all desires except Allah, he attains God-realization.

When by pure divine grace the inner realm of the breast of the sufi aspirant (sahat-i sina’-i u) becomes empty of all wishes (maradat) and he wishes nothing but Haqq (SWT) then at that time he receives those things that he sought (maqsud) at the time of his creation [i.e. he receives God-realization.] Then he becomes capable of real worship (haqiqat-i bandegi). Then if God so desires, He sends him back [to the world, as a sufi guide] to nurture the imperfect beings (tarbiyat-i naqisan) [to God-realization].

At the time of God-realization, God gives him back desiringness which he had lost before during his annihilation in Allah.

At that time, Allah (SWT) gives him desiringness (irada) as well as free-will (ikhtiar) so that he becomes free and independent (mukhtar va majaz) in both words and deeds. It is like when a slave has been so permitted, [he attains freedom in his words and deeds].

And he molds his character in the character of Allah.

This station is where one molds one's character in the "character of Allah” (takhalluq be-akhlaq Allah). Whatsoever that the possessor of the desire (iradat) wants on this station he wants it for the others. And his aim (manzur) is others affairs (masalih) [i.e. to help others], not his own affair. Just like it is the state of the desire of the Necessary [in that that God needs no help from anyone even Himself, His sole aim is to help his creation]. Verily Allah has the most sublime analogies.

However, the desires of the God-realized sufi are not always met.

It is neither mandatory nor permitted (lajim, jaij) that whatever that the desirer desires will be fulfilled. If it were, it would be tantamount to taking [the desirer as a] partner to Allah (shirk) and incompatiable to his being a worshipper to Allah.

Hazrat Haqq (SWT) has said to his own beloved [Prophet Muhammad] (slm), You will not be able to guide him whom you love. Allah guides him whomever He wants [innaka la tahdi man ahbabtu wa lakinna ‘Llaha yahdi man yashau] (Koran 28:57). When the desires of the prince of men [Prophet Muhammad] (slm), may not be fulfilled then what can be said about [the desires of] the others?

And God may not like all the desires of the God-realized sufi.

It is also not necessary that Haqq (SWT) would like every desire of the desires. Had it been so, then Allah (SWT) would not have objected to some of the words and deeds of that master [Prophet Muhammad] (slm). Like Allah (SWT) have said, It was not appropriate for the prophet [ma kana li-nabiyyin] (Koran 3:161) He is not forgiven in this verse. After that Allah (SWT) said, Allah has forgiven you (afa ‘Llahu anka) (Koran 9:43). Forgiveness comes only after a fault. [So that verse implies that the prophet must have made a fault.]

God does not even like all His own desires, let alone all the desires of the God-realized sufi.

At the same time, it should also be remembered that all the desires of Haqq (SWT) is not to His liking e.g. lack of faith and sin (kufri va maasi).

For example, only when God desires so, a man may lose faith or fall into sin. That does not mean that God like that. This is an abstruse point in kalam that would need more detailed discussions to understand.

Note: It is because God desires these. Else these actions would not even exist and people would not even do them. As God has stated, “Allah (SWT) does not like lack of faith (kufri) from His servants. (Koran)So when the desire of Allah may not be to His liking then the desires of the servant may not be to the liking of God.

Minha 45

Word of God is the guide

We may learn about God only through divine revelation.

My leader (imam) on this deed (kar) [of wayfaring on the sufi path or suluk] is the word of Allah (kalam Allah). And in this context, my guide (pir) is the noble Koran. Had the Koran not guiding (hidayat) us, we would not have discovered the method of worshipping the true god (mabud-i haqq).

Every fleck [of dust] however small it may be (latif-i altaf) on this path cries out "I am Allah". And it beckons every traveller (rawanda) on this path to his worship (parast). That fleck of dust, if it can be qualified with “how, chun”, then it shows itself in the form of “without how, bi-chun”. And if it is similar (tashbiya’) [to the worldly things] then it becomes resplendant in the shape (hi’at) of incomparability [like God is]. Here, contingent things are interwined (mutamazzaj) with the Necessary (wujub). And newly-originatedness and primordialness (huduth, qidam) are sown together by the same string. If it is false (batil) then it shows in the form of truth (surat-i haqq). And if it is misguidance (dalalat) then it appears in the shape of good-guidance (shakl-i hidayat).

As a result, the wayfarer (salik) attains the characteristics of a blind traveller (musafir) who turns his face towards everything saying, This is my Lord (h[USER5] aza rabbi) (Koran 6:77). The Haqq (SWT) praises himself by referring to Himself as the creator of the heavens and the earth (khaliqu ‘l-samawati wa ‘l-ardi) and the lord of the east and the west (rabbu ‘l-mashriqi wa ‘l-maghribi) (Koran 26:28).

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In my ascent (uruj), all these attributes [that are fitting only to God almighty] were presented before the imaginary idols (aliha’i mutakhayyila’), and they [those imaginary idols] were forced (be-ikhtiyar) to reject (aba) [the claim that they possessed those lordly attributes]. And those [imaginary idols] set down [below the horizon to oblivion].

Consequently, I turned my face away from those [imaginary idols] saying, I do not love them who set down below the horizon (la uhibbu ‘l-afilin) (Koran 6:76). And I made the person of the Necessary Existence (dhat-i wajib al-wujud) my sole object of attention (qibla’-i tawajju’).

All praise is to Allah who has guided us towards it. Had He not guided us, we would not be guided. Verily the messengers of our Lord came with the truth. (Laqad jaat rusulu rabbuna bi ‘l-haqqi) (Koran 7:43).

Minha 46

Belief On Baqibillah

The Mujaddid speaks on his belief on his guide Hazrat Baqibillah.

There were four people who had more intimate attachments (mulazama) to our Khwaja [Hazrat Baqibillah] than the rest of my sufi brothers. I was one of them. Each of us had a unique belief on  Hazrat Khwaja, and a unique inter-action (muamala) with him. [That is, each of us held a unique belief regarding Hazrat Khwaja and in turn he produced a unique hal in each of us.]

I firmly believed that the likeness of such companionship and gathering (suhbat, ijtima), and the resemblances of such nurturing and and good-guidance-giving (tarbiyat, irshad) have never appeared after the time of our master [Prophert Muhammad] (slm).And I used to express my gratefulness to Allah that although I was not honored by the honor of the companionship of the Best of Men [Prophet Muhammad] (slm), still I was not deprived of an instance of the felicity of this companionship [of Khwaja Baqibillah].

Hazrat Khwaja used to say like this about the states of the other three, “That man recognizes that I can make others perfect (sahib-i takmil) but does not consider me capable to give good-guidance (sahib-i irshad). And to him the level of guidance-giving (irshad) is higher than the level of perfection (kamalat)." And about that man, he said, "He does not maintain any relationship with me at all." About another man he used to say: "He denies me." And whatever that we received was proportionate to our beliefs.

Don't Deify the Pir

The Mujaddid re-iterates the traditional sufi belief that in order to advance, the disciple should hold the belef that his guide is the most capable, blessed and perfect guide that there is. And the disciple should love the guide for being so. And this bondage of love becomes the channell through which the disciple (murid) receives energy or benefit (fayda) from his teacher.

You should know that the disciple's (murid) belief about his pir’s superiority and perfection (afdaliyat va akmaliyat) is the result of “love” (mahabbat) and the consequence of the relationship (munasabat) [that he has with the pir.] And that is the occasion (sabab) of benefiting (ifada va istifada) from the pir.]

p 71 para 2 l 3

But none should rank his pir higher (fadilat) than them whose greatness (bozorgi va azimat) has been determined by the sharia. It is because that would be excessive (ifrat) veneration which is bad.

The Shias show excessive (ifrat) veneration only to the family of Prophet Muhammad (ahl-i bayat) and that is their fault. The Christians, due to an excessive veneration, have made Jesus (slm) the son of Allah and as a result they have faced endloss loss.

However, it is permissible if someone gives a higher rank [to his sufi guide] except these [masters whose higher rank has been determined in the sharia.] Instead, it is incumbent (wajib) [for a sufi to do so in order to advance] in the tariqa [or the sufi path].

Now To give such higher rank (fadilat) is not according to the disciple's own volition; instead if the disciple is capable then such a belief appears spontaneously in his mind and through the medium (wasila) of such belief he attains the perfections of his sufi teacher (pir). However, if giving such a higher rank is according to the disciple's own volition and he tries to create such a belief against his true belief then it is not acceptable and he gains no benefit by it.

Minha 47

The Zikr of Negation-Affirmation

The Mujaddid teaches us on the zikr of negation and affirmation. The first part of it is that we should negate everything.

The supreme degree (daraja’i aliya) in the [zikr of] negation and affirmation (nafi va ithbat) by the “pleasant verse” (kalima’I tayyab) la ilaha illa ‘Llah (there is none worthy of worship but Allah) is this ― that you negate everything. Whatsoever comes before you in vision, intellect, unveiling and witnessing (did, danish, kashf, shuhud), all that may be sheerly pure and absolutely ineffable. Notwithstanding that, you should include that under the la [no].

And the second part is that we should do this zikr by the heart, not verbally.

And with respect to the affirmation (ithbat) you will have to say (takallam) the exceptional verse (la ilaha illa ‘Llah) which comes out in the homesteads of the heart (qalb). There should be nothing there in addition to it.

You can't hunt the phoenix
O hunter! Pick up your net
Whosoever puts out a net hoping to catch the phoenix,
He returns home empty handed

Anqa shikar kasi nashod va dam baz chin
ke-inja hamisheh bad be-dast ast dam ra

Peace be on them who follow guidance and take up on emulation of  the Chosen One. Peace and blessings be on him and his progeny.

Minha 48

The Reality of the Koran, the Reality of Kaaba, the Reality of Muhammad

The Mujaddid comments on the relative positions of the Muhammadan reality vis-à-vis the reality of the Koran and the reality of the Divine Kaaba.

The reality of the Koran (haqiqat-i qur’ani) and the reality of the Divine Kaaba (haqiqat-i kaba’i rabbani) are above the Muhammadan reality (haqiqat-i muhammadi). Therefore the reality of the Koran (haqiqat-i Koran) has become the leader (imam) of the reality of Muhammad (haqiqat-i muhammadi) [on their manifestations be salutation, peace and benediction]. And the the reality of the Divine Kaaba (haqiqat-i kaba-i rabbani) has become the place where the reality of Muhammad prostrates (masjud). Along with it,   the reality of the Divine Kaaba is above the reality of the Koran (haqiqat-i qur’ani).

The reality of the Divine Kaaba is in the station that is right above the attributes, modes and colors i.e. the realm of God the undifferentiated one-and-allness (wahidiyat).

There everything is without any attribute or color (bi-sifati va bi-rangi). Modes and “crossing-overs” (shu’un va itibarat) are irrelevant there.  And making incomparable and sanctification (tanzih va taqdis) have no place in that Blessed Presence.

 The relative positions of the realities Reality of the Kaaba Reality of the Koran Muhammadan reality

There everything is such
That they cannot be spoken about

Anja hameh an ast
Keh barter ze bayan ast

This is a gnostic idea (marifat) on which none among the people of Allah has ever opened their lips. Nor have they given any hint or allusion.

However, I have been honored with this knowledge and I have been distinguished before all my peers.

All these, I have received as alms from the Beloved of Allah and by the grace of the messenger of Allah! The most perfect and complete salutation and peace be on him!

The Reality of Muhammad Would Ascend to the Station of the Reality of Kaaba

Here the Mujaddid reveals a unique insight of his on the relative positions of the reality of Muhammad, the reality of Ahmad and the reality of Kaaba.

You should know that just as the form of Kaaba (surat-i kaba) is that before which the forms of everything prostrates, the reality of Kaaba (haqiqat-i kaba) is that before which all their realities prostrate.

Now I shall tell you a wondrous thing that none has ever heard before or none has ever told before. By his grace and munificence, Allah (SWT) has notified this to me via inspiration (ilham).

1.                  A thousand and a few years after the death of the that master [Prophet Muhammad] (slm), a time would come when the reality of Muhammad (haqiqat-i Muhammadi) would ascend (uruj) from its station and would be united (muttahid) with the reality of Kaaba (haqiqat-i kaba). At this time, the reality of Muhammad would be renamed as the reality of Ahmad (haqiqat-i ahmadi). And it would become the place of manifestation of God who is the one-in-number person (SWT) (mazhar-i dhat-i ahad).

2.                  And both these blessed names [Muhammad and Ahmad] would be realized with that by which they are named (be-musamma mutahaqqiq shod) [i.e. these names would ascend to the station where the the reality of Muhammad and the reality of Kaaba both are stationed super-imposed onto each other.]

3.                  The former station for the the reality of Muhammad will remain vacant until Hazrat Jesus (slm) descends [in the end of times] and observes the Muhammadan sharia. At that time the reality of Jesus will ascend (uruj) from its station and be settled (istiqrar) in the station of the reality of Muhammad that had remained vacant.

Minha 49

The Pleasant Verse

Ths Mujaddid teaches us on the excellences of the pleasant verse.

If the pleasant verse (kalmia-i tayyiba), La ilaha illaAllah "There is no god except Allah! did not exist then who would guide us towards Holy Being of God (SWT)? Who would unveil the veil from the face of tawhid, the belief that there is only God? Who would open the doors to the paradise?

The sword of la, the negation cuts off numerous human attributes. And by the blessing of the repetition of this negation (nafi) makes countless objects related to the world vanish.  The part of negation (nafi) in that [verse i.e. la] destroys those false gods. And the part of affirmation [i.e illa ‘Llah] affirms that true God.

By its assistance, the wayfarer cuts through the contingent degrees (madarij-i imkani). And by its grace (barakat), the gnostic climbs (irtiqa) the stations from where he ascends to the Necessary (maarij-i wujubi).

It is this verse that takes man from the self-disclosure of the acts (tajalliyat-i afal) to the self-disclosure of the attributes (tajalliyat-i sifat). And then takes from the self-disclosure of the attributes (tajalliyat-i sifat) to the self-disclosure of the person (tajalliyat-i dhat).

When the broom of “la” won’t sweep the road
Then how can you reach the home of “illa ‘Llah”

?????????????????/

Peace to them who follow guidance and firmly follow the chosen one [Prophet Muhammad]. The most perfect and complete peace and salutation be on him and his progeny!

There are maktubs on this topic in the maktubat Vol III.

Minha 50

The Two Suras Seeking Refuge

The Mujaddid comments on master Sharfuddin Yahya Maniri’s opinion that the “two suras seeking refuge” i.e. Sura Falaq and Sura Nas should not be recited in salats within the minimum amount of Koranic recitation that is obligatory.

First, he quotes master Sharfuddin prohibiting such recitation.

Master Sharfuddin Yahya Maniri (qs) has written in his Maktubat that the “two suras seeking refuge” (muawwidhatayn) [i.e. Sura Falaq and Sura Nas] should not be recited in obligatory (fardh) salat. It is because Hazrat Ibn Mas'ud (ra) had an opinion that is contrary to the majority [of the ulama, his opinion was that those two suras are not really parts of the Koran.]. Therefore, he opined that we should not include these [two suras] in the minimum amount of Koranic recitation that is obligatory (fardh) in salat.

Then he discusses his own vision on it.

[Following him,] I also did not recite these two suras in salat. Then I saw once [in a dream or mystic vision] that the two suras seeking refuge (muawwidhatayn) are before me and they are complaining about Master [Shaykh Sharfuddin Maniri], “Why did he take us out of the Koran?”

From that time onwards, I started to violate that prohibition and recite these two suras within the [minimum] recitation (qirat) in obligatory prayers (fardh). And whenever, I recited these two Koranic suras in obligatory [prayers], I entered a state where I used to see amazing mystic visions (ahwal-i 1ajiba mushahadah).

L -5

Then the Mujaddid gives his reasons for disbelieving Shaykh Sharfuddin’s proposition.

The truth is that from the viewpoint of the science of the sharia, there is no bar to reciting these two suras seeking refuge in obligatory prayers (fardh). [The reasons are,]

1.                  [First,] if there were a doubt to its permissibility, it would violate the incontrovertible opinion [of the ulama that those two suras are indeed a part of the Koran.] It is because [the unanimous opinion is that] whatsoever that is between the two pages [from the first page to the last page], all of it is the Koran (ma bayna dafatayni qur’anun).

2.                  [Second,] in addition to this, it should also be remembered that reciting another sura after Suratu ‘l-Fatiha is only wajib, highly recommended [but not fardh, absolutely required]. Therefore, the prohibition that those two suras should not be recited [after Sura Fatiha in the salat, out of caution,] is not valid. If it [the recitation of a sura or part thereof after Sura Fatiha] were obligatory [only then those salats would not have been accepted at all. So one cannot say that out of caution, those two suras should not be recited. [It is because in the worst case, if it turns out in the day of last judgement that these two suras were not part of the Koran, still those salats would be accepted.]

[In conclusion,] in no way is there a problem to recite those two suras after Suratu ‘l-Fatiha. I surprised at the great shaykh [Sharfuddin] in this opinion! All of it is surprising!

Note: Technically, even Shaykh Maniri’s opinion was that those two suras could be recited, he only proposed that if you do recite those two sura after Suratu ‘l-Fatiha in the first two cycle of an obligatory (fardh) prayer, you should recite a few more verses from the Qur’an. It’s because for obligatory prayers, it is incumbent (wajib) to recite a minimum amount from the Koran after Sura Fatiha.

Salutation and peace be on the prince of man and his pious progeny!

Minha 51

The Mujaddid teaches us on the virtues of taqlid, following the tradition.

He has an abundant share of the tariqa of the Sufis, instead from the Islamic community (millat-i Islam) who possesses the fitrat, habit of taqlid, following the authority of the predecessors and the innate disposition (jibilla) of imitation (mutaba’at) abundantly.

Here the principal of affairs (madarikar) is taqlid. Taqlid of the prophets (slm) elevates one to lofty levels. (darajat) and imitation of the sufis brings one to the greatest station of ascent (to be blast off on a high ascent or uruj.).

Hadrat Abu Bakr the truthful (may the Haqq be pleased on him) is greatly endowed with this habit (fitrat). And because of this, he accepted the prophetness [of Hazrat Muhammad] (slm) without any delay and became the leader among the truthful (siddiqun). On the other hand, the accursed Abu Jahl could not favor himself with that good fortune because he lacked the qualities of taqlid and imitation (mutabaat). As a result, he became the leader of the accursed.

The perfection that a disciple (murid) attains is through the emulation of his own pir or guide. A pir’s error is better than the disciple’s correct practice. It is because of this, Hazrat Abu Bakr (ra) used to desire to be the error of Hazrat Prophet (slm) and used to say: "How I wish that I could be the error of Muhammad?” (slm)

Hazrat Prophet [Muhammad] (slm) said about Hazrat Bilal (R): "The sin of Bilal is shin to the Haqq." Hazrat Bilal was a native of Ethiopia where Arabic was not the mother-tongue and so used to mis-pronounce ash-hadu as as-hadu during the prayer call (adhan) and the Haqq accepted it as ash-hadu. Therefore, this fault of Hazrat Bilal is better than other's correct pronunciation. Like a poet has written:

Eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee

I have heard it from a friend that the supplications (dua) that is suggested by the Sufi shaykhs, if a shaykh makes a mistake in them and his followers continue to recite the supplications with that mistake in them, in the same way that the shaykh used to recite, then that [supplication] would have results. But if that [supplication] is recited correctly, then there would be no result.

May the Haqq (SWT) keep us steadfast on doing taqlid of the prophets, imitating (mutabaat) the friends of God (awliya) and may He grant us the good fortune of perfect taqlid of the Prophet (slm).

Minha 52

Level of the Major Prophets in the Context of the Self-disclosure of the Person (tajalli-i dhati)

Here, the Mujaddid ranks the major prophets. First in rank is Prophet Muhammad.

Hazrat Muhammad the messenger of Allah (slm) is the noblest of all prophets (mursalin), on him and on them be salutation and peace. How can I even compare him with the rest of the human beings [who are not prophets]? Hazrat Jesus and Moses (slm) have received their share from the station of the self-disclosure of the person (tajalli-i dhat) in commensurate to their level and preparedness (al-martabati wa ‘l-istidadi).  Allah (SWT) stated to Hazrat Moses (slm), I have selected you for myself. (Wa ‘stanatuka li-nafsi) (Koran 20:41) i.e. my person (dhati). And Hazrat Jesus (slm) is the spirit of Allah (ruhu ‘Llah) and the word of Allah (kalam-i u). There is a deep inter-relationship between him [Jesus] and that master (sarwar) [Muhammad].

76, -7

Second in rank is Hazrat Abraham.

While Hazrat Abraham (slm) possesses the station of the self-disclosure of divine attributes (tajalli-i sifat), still he also possesses a keen sight (hadid al-basar). Hazrat Abraham (slm) also attained that elect condition () that our own prophet attained on the station of the self-disclosure of the person of God (maqam-i tajalli-i dhat), although there were differences in preparedness (istidad) between them. Therefore, on this measure, he is superior to Hazrat Jesus and Hazrat Moses (slm).

Third in rank is Hazrat Jesus and fourth is Hazrat Moses.

After that, Hazrat Jesus is superior to Hazrat Moses and his level (rutba) is above Hazrat Moses. He had keen perception (hadid al-basar).

77, last line

Fifth in rank is Hazrat Noah.

After these masters  is Hazrat Noah. And the station of Hazrat Noah (slm) that is on the station of [the self-disclosure of] the attributes (maqam-i sifat) ― it is higher than the station of Hazrat Abraham (slm).

However, still Hazrat Abraham has a unique rank (shan-i khwass) and a keen sight (huddat-i basar) on that station that no one else has. And his [Hazrat Abraham’s] blessed progeny have a share from this station due to emulation and compliance to the rules (tabiyat va fariyat).

Note: The “blessed progeny” of Hazrat Abraham refers to his spiritual descendants i. e. the Abrahamic community.

Sixth in rank is Hazrat Adam.

The rank of Hazrat Adam (slm) is after Hazrat Noah (slm).

Allah gives peace and blessings to our prophet and all other prophets. My Lord (Rabb) has taught this to me and has inspired (ilham) this to by His grace and generousity (fadl va karam). Allah (SWT) possesses the true knowledge!

 The Prophets and their Ranks Rank Prophet 1 Hazrat Muhammad 2 Abraham 3 Jesus 4 Moses 5 Noah 6 Adam

Minha 53

The Short Journey Versus the Long Journey (sayr ijmali, sayr tafsili)

For the wayfarer whose journey (sayr) of that wayfarer (salik) who has fallen into the divine names and the attributes in a differentiated manner, his path towards the divine person has been blocked. It is because the names and the attributes have no end, such that the wayfarer can cross them and reach his intended place at the farthest end (maqsud-i aqsa). The masters have commented on this station that the levels where you reach have no end.

It is so because the perfections of the Beloved (kamalat-i mahbub) are endless. And reaching this point means reaching the names and the attributes. He is felicitious whose wayfaring in the the names and the attributes takes place in an undifferentiated manner (ijmal) so that he reaches the divine person of God quickly.

Return After Reaching the Highest Level

Truly, those who have reached the end of the ends must return to invite people towards God (dawat). Not returning from that homestead [that is the end of the ends] cannot be conceived.

However, this statement contradicts those sufis who have only progressed to the realm that is midway (mutawastan) [along the sufi path of wayfaring, who have realized some measure of perfection although they have not reached the zenith of perfection] ― they do not consider it imperative to return after reaching the end that their aptitude will allow them to reach (istiadadi). It may be that they may return or it may be that they prefer to remain there.

Therefore, those who reach the end point (muntihiyan) complete all the levels that are to be reached (maratib-i wusul) [and reach perfection], instead it is imperative for them to do so. [However, they complete those levels in an undifferentiated or ijmal manner.] But there is no end point for those who journey (rafteh and) in the names and the attributes (asma va sifat) in a differentiated manner (tafsil). [So they never reach perfection.]

This is an elect knowledge [that has been given] to me. It is Allah who knows all that there is to know!

Minha 54

done 4-13-07

The Station of Good-pleasure

The Mujaddid teaches us on the station of good-pleasure.

The station of good-pleasure (maqam-i ridha) is higher than all the [other] stations of friendness (walayat). This exalted station (maqam-i ala) is attained only after the completion of [both of the segments of the sufi path, the segment of the path that lies in the world of empirical things, which is traversed by] the suluk-method and [the other segment of the sufi path that lies in the world of command, which is traversed by] the jadhba-method.

Question: It is obligatory (wajib) to be well-pleased (ridha) towards the person of the Haqq (SWT), His attributes (sifat) and His act(s) (afal). Indeed, it is an integral part of our faith (iman) [to be so well-pleased]. Therefore, the common faithful must possess this [good-pleasure]. So what do you mean when you say that [good-pleasure] is attained only after the completion of [the sufi path by] the suluk-method and jadhba-method?

Answer: Good-pleasure has both an outer form (surat) and an inner reality (haqiqat), as it is for every other element (arkan) of the faith (iman). In the beginning, the outer form is realized and in the end, the inner reality is realized. When someone appears to be well-pleased towards God, then the external aspects of the sharia rules that he has attained good-pleasure. This is analogous to attestation by the heart (tasdiq-i qalbi). When you do not observe anything contrary to that attestation [of the faith] in someone, then you may rule that he has attested [faith].

However, what we are talking about is attaining the inner reality (haqiqat) of good-pleasure, not its outer form. [And the sufi realizes that inner reality of good-pleasure only after he has perfected himself through the sufi path].

Exalted Allah knows the best!

Minha 55

Following the Sunna and Rejecting Deviations

Make efforts so that you may follow the sunna and avoid deviations (bidat). Especially it is critical to discard such deviations that eliminate the sunna. The Blessed Prophet (slm) said, Reject him who will add any newly introduced practice to our religion [Man ahdatha fi dinina hadha fa-hua raddun].

I am amazed at them who add newly introduced things (ihdathat) to the religion (din) when that religion is already perfect and complete, and who seek to perfect that religion by these newly introduced things. Aren't they at all worried that the sunna would be eliminated (God forbid!) by these inventions?

For example, take the case of the tail of the turban. It is a sunna to suspend the tail of the turban along the centerline of the back. However, many people have chosen to suspend it along the left-side of the back. By this practice, they seek to imitate the dead [― the tail of the turban in the burial shroud is along the left side of the back.] Many people are following them in this practice. However, they do not know that this practice eliminates the sunna. And takes one from the sunna to its deviations (bidat). And if they continue on the same course of action [in which they are not following the sunna,] they will soon reach the forbidden (haram). Following whom is better? Our Blessed Prophet Muhammad (slm)? Or the dead? Our blessed Prophet Muhammad (slm) has been honored by a death that is before death [that the ascended masters who are the God-realized Sufis also experience]. Some people want to establish a relationship with the dead but they should instead establish to relate to our blessed Prophet Muhammad (slm).

Surprising! In the burial shroud, a turban in itself is a deviation! What can you say about the tail? Some ulama of the later times consider adding a turban to the burial shroud of someone from the ulama to be a good practice (mustahsan). However, I believe that adding anything to the burial shroud [beyond what is in the sunna] is like changing the sunna and changing the sunna is like rejecting the sunna.

Allah (SWT) keeps us steadfast on the illuminated sunna of the chosen one and salutation and peace be on its originator [Prophet Muhammad]! Allah shower His mercy on him who will say amin to this prayer!

Minha 56

The Jinn

The Mujaddid describes an unveiling on the jinns.

Once I was shown the condition of the genies (jinn). I had a vision,

The genies (jinn) are walking on the streets like men. There is an angel over every genie's (jinn) head and out of fear of that angel, the genies (jinn) are neither raising up their heads nor looking towards the left or the right but walking straight. They are like prisoners in shackles powerless to resist. They can do something only when the Haqq permits them to do so. It seemed that the angels in charge have iron clubs in their hands and they are ready to kill any genie (jinn) on the slightest sign of resistance.”

It was like a poet had composed:

It is God who has created evil and calamity
And He has placed the weak at the feet of the mighty.

Khuda’i keh bala’ va past afrid
Zabardast-i har dast dast afrid

Minha 57

The Reality of Partial Superiority of the Friend over the Prophet

Here the Mujaddid comments on an idea of Ibn Arabi that the “seal of the prohets” learns from the “seal of the friends’”.

Whatsoever perfection (kamalat) that a friend (wali) attains or whatsoever degree (daraja) that he reaches, he reaches there as the accompanied servant eating the left-over of his master who is his prophet, and through following his prophet (tufayl-i mutabaat-i nabiyi khod). Had he not possessed the emulation (mutabaat) of his prophet then he would not have possessed the faith.  From where else would he have found the way to climb to a high degree (darajat)?

Therefore if a friend (wali) attains an excellence (fadilat) from the partial excellences (fada’il-i juziyya) that the prophet (nabi) had not attained, or if he attains an elect degree (darajat-i khwass) from the lofty degrees (darajat-i aliya) that the prophet had not attained; then the prophet fully shares that partial excellence and that elect degree [with that friend.] For [that friend] attains that perfection (kamal) by the medium (bi-wasta-i) of following his prophet and all his perfections (kamalat) is one of the results from the numerous results of following the traditions (sunnat) of that prophet.

p 80 l 7

Therefore, necessarily, the prophet (nabi) possesses all those perfections (kamalat) completely. As our [Prophet] (slm) have said, He who establishes a good tradition (sunnat), he will receive its wage and the wages of all who will practice that. [Man sanna sunnatan hasanatan fa-lahu ajruha wa ajru man amila-biha]. However, the friend is the prior (sabiq, muqaddam) in attaining this perfection and in reaching this degree (darja).

[The ulama] agree that the friend may legitimately possess this type of superiority over the prophet as it [this superiority] is [only] partial (juz’i). [And the friend having that partial superiority over the prophet,] it does not go up against [rule that the prophets are indeed superior] when everything is considered all-together.

The Mujaddid here criticizes Ibn Arabi who wrote that ???????????????

Ibn Arabi, the author of the Fusus [al-Hikam], has written that the “seal of the prophets” (khatm al-nubuwat) (slm) have taken the knowledge (ilm va marifat) from the “seal of the friends” (khatm al-walayat). I [the Mujaddid] refuse to accept that idea and instead comply with the sharia completely.

The commentators of the Fusus [al-Hikam] have used convoluted logic (takalluf) to justify [the above statement]. They have said, “Actually, the seal of the friends (khatm al-walayat) is the treasurer of the seal of the prophets (khazina-dar-i khatm al-nubuwat). There is nothing wrong when the emperor seeks something from his own treasurer.”

However, the true meaning of the matter is what I have explained to you. The reason why they are using convoluted logic (takalluf) is that they do not know the reality of this inter-action.

Allah (SWT) knows best the reality of every matter, all of them. Allah gives peace and bless our beloved Prophet who is the best of all men and his pure progeny! [Wa ‘l-salawatu wa ‘l-salamu ala sayyidi ‘l-bashari wa alihi ‘l-athari.]

Minha 58

Can A Friend Be Higher Than A Prophet

Here the Mujaddid criticizes Ibn Arabi’s idea that a friend or saint of Allah (wali) may rise higher than his prophet with respect to his friendness (walayat).

The friendness of the friend (walayat-i wali) is only a part (juz) among the parts of the friendness of his prophet (slm) (walayat-i nabi-i u). However high rank (darajat) may the friend possesses, that rank will only be a part among the parts of the rank of his prophet (nabi). Whatsoever rank that the part may have, it will be less than the rank of the whole. That “the whole is greater than the part” is a self-evident (badihiya) proposition (qadiya). He is an idiot who imagines that the part is greater than the whole. For all parts belong to the whole.

Note: Ibn Arabi proposed that the friendness of a sufi may be higher than the friendness of his prophet. Friends are focused towards God and the prophets are primarily focused towards men in order to give them guidance, and secondarily to God. And so while the prophet is superior is to the friend in his prophetness, an highly-God-realized friend may be superior to his own prophet with respect to friendness. The Mujaddid is criticizing that proposition.

Minha 59

The Divine Attributes

The unique knowledge about the attributes that the Mujaddid gives us is this ― the attribute of livingness is the most sublime attribute being the sheer reality of God. So he is taking livingness out of the roll of the real attributes, where the ulama has placed it, and instead classifies it as the “sheer reality” of God. However, the rest of the ideas about the real and additional attributes are generally recognized among the entire ulama.

Now the Mujaddid explains to us the mystery of the divine attributes.

The attributes of the Necessary (SWT) (sifat-i wajibi) are of three types. They are,

1.                  The first type is the additional attribute (sifat-i idhafiya). Examples are creatorness (khaliqiya), provision-giverness (raziqiya) etc.

2.                  The second type is the real attribute (sifat-i haqiqiya). However, they are colored by the [additional] attributes. Examples are knowingness, powerfulness, desiringness, hearingness , seeingness, speakingness etc. (kal-ilmi wa’l qudrati wa’l iradati wa’l sami wa’l basari wa’l kalami)

3.                  The third type is the sheer reality (haqiqat-i sirf). The example is livingness (hayat). No additional [attribute] is mixed with it. We consider additional [attributes] to be things that are connected to the world (alam).

 The Attributes of God Type of attribute Definition qualities of the attributes Examples 1 Additional attributes(sifat-i idhafiya). Attributes that are connected to the created world lower level attributes, many in number creatorness (khaliqiya), provision-giverness (raziqiya) and many others 2 real attributes (sifat-i haqiqiya). [except the attribute of livingness] Attributes that relate to the person of God, except the attribute of livingness higher level, seven in number knowingness, powerfulness, desiringness, hearingness, seeingness, speakingness engenderingness (ilm, qudrat, iradat, sama, basr, kalam, takwin) 3 sheer reality (haqiqat-i sirf) Represents the sheer reality of God The highest level, one in number livingness (hayat)

Note: Livingness (hayat) is usually classified as a real attribute, however the Mujaddid creates a new category for it calling it the sheer reality of God.

The most comprehensive of all attributes is the attribute of livingness (hayat), which is God’s sheer reality.

The third type [that is the attribute of livingness] is the most exalted (ala) of all the three types. It is the most comprehensive (jami) of all the types. [The attributes of this third type] are the mothers of [all the other] attributes. The attribute of knowledge (sifat-i ilm) with all its comprehensiveness (jamiyat) is subordinate (tabi) to the attribute of livingness (sifat-i hayat). The circle (da’ira) of the attributes and the modes (sifat va shuyunat) ends on the attribute of livingness (sifat-i hayat).

This attribute of livingness is the door to reach God. It denotes the supreme level of knowledge of God.

Actually, this [attribute of livingness, hayat] is the door to reach the the desired destination (usul be-matlub). It’s because the attribute of livingness (sifat-i hayat) is above the attribute of knowledge (sifat-i ilm). You may reach that homestead (mawtin) only after traversing [all the different] levels of knowledge. Be it manifest knowledge or nonmanifest knowledge. Or be it knowledge of the sharia or knowledge of the tariqa.

Very few people have entered through that door [i.e. traversed all the levels of knowledge and finally reached the attribute of livingness.] Very few people have also turned their gaze away from myopia and have instead cast their gaze towards this [attribute of livingness.] If I reveal even a single secret of this station [of the attribute of livingness], then I shall be decapitated.[12]

It's not proper to analyze His attributes beyond this
That what is concealed is the most beautiful

Wa min badi haza ma yadiqqu sifatuhu
Wa ma katmuhu ahza ladayhi wa ajmalu

Peace be on them who follow good-guidance [Wa ‘l-salamu ala mani ‘ttabaa ‘l-huda] (Koran 20:47) and tenaciously follow [prophet Muhammad] the chosen on whom and on whose progeny be peace and blessings.

Minha 60

Analogies of God

God does not have any analogy.

Hazrat Haqq (SWT) is not blemished by any analogy (mithal). He has said, Nothing can be His analogy [Laysa ka-mithlihi shay’un] (K42:11) Still, analogies (mithal) are valid (ja’iz). And analogies have been permitted. For He also says, Allah has the most exalted analogies [Wa liLlahi ‘l-mathalu ‘l-ala]. (K16:60)

Yes! In general, the Sufis ???????????????????????????///

The masters of the wayfaring and the companions of the unveilings (arbab-i suluk va ashab-i kushuf) [i.e. sufi masters, they] attain peace through analogies (mithal) [that they make of God in the worldly things] and receive comfort through imagination (khiyal). They see “without what manner, bi-chun” in the analogy of “what manner, chun”. And they make Necessaryness (wujub) appear resplendent in the form of contingentness.

The Mujaddid and few other Sufis follow the sunna tradition whereas most other Sufis follow deviant traditions, and they are misguided because they reduce God who is unqualifiable to earthly analogies that are qualifiable.

The sufi traveler (salik) [who follows the faction of the Sufis who are deviant, he] considers [worldly] analogy as identical to the creator of the analogy (dhi mithal) [who is God]. And he considers [worldly] form as identical to the creator of the form (dhi surat).

For example, these misguided Sufis bring divine encompassment down to the way one objecy encompasses another object in this contingent world.

[This attitude of theirs has] even reached the point that they see the form of the encompassment of the Haqq (SWT) in the things [of the cosmos. That is, they see God encompassing the cosmos in the same way that a physical object encompasses another physical object].

And the encompassment that they witness in the world [when one physical object encompasses another physical object] ― they think that [that is analogous to] the encompassment when God encompasses the creation. [That is, these misguided Sufis think that God encompassing the creation is like when one physical object encompasses another in this world, and that] is the true meaning (haqiqat) of the encompassment of the Haqq (SWT).

However, it is not at all like that. The divine encompassment is [unqualified, it is] “without what manner” and “without how”. He is far removed from being that which comes within [the compass of] witnessing (shuhud) or unveiling. We believe that the He (SWT) encompasses everything but we do not know “how it is.” Whatever that we know are similitudes or analogies (shabh va mithal) of that encompassment.

In contrast, the encompassment of God is “without what manner” and “without how” (bi-chun va bi-chegun). And He is beyond being witnessed and unveiled (shuhud, makshuf). We believe that He (SWT) encompasses everything. However, we do not know the “how it is” or nature (keh chist) of that encompassment. Whatever [worldly encompassment] that we know are similitudes or analogies (shabh va mithal) of that [divine] encompassment. We will have to interpret the nearness and encompassment of God in such a way that all that [we] witness or are unveiled [to us] (mash-hud va makshuf) from that [divine nearness or encompassment], they are similitudes and analogies (shabh va mithal) [of that divine nearness or encompassment], not the reality [of the divine nearness or encompassment].

We believe that God (SWT) is near (qarib) us and with us (ba ma).  However, we do not know what’s the true nature (haqiqat) of that that nearness and encompassment.

The prophet said in a (salam) hadith report, “Your lord will disclose Himself smiling (yatajalla rabbakum dahikan)”[Hadith: unknown origin]. [And that hadith describes God] in an imaginal form (surat-i mithali). For an image of the realization of perfect good-pleasure would be a smiling form (bi-surat-i dahik). And when we talk about God having a hand, face, feet or finger ― they also should be interpreted as imaginal forms.

My lord has taught me such! And Allah chooses whomever He wants! Allah possesses magnificent bounties! Almighty Allah! Bless our leader Muhammad and his progeny and give them peace and blessings!

Minha 61

Caveat

There may be discrepancies in this book; however, it should be understood that that are sufi experiential knowledges. And they depend on the specific hal that the Mujaddid experienced at that instant of time and also on the context of that matter. This has been edited by Mavash revision 1 not complete

If there is any discrepancy or contradiction in this author’s description of the states, raptures and ideas (ahwal, mawajid, ulum, maarif), then it should be predicated to the difference in times and contexts. It is so because each and every moment has its own state (hal) and ecstasies (mawajid). And for each context, the knowledge (ulum va maarif) is different. Therefore, there is no contradiction or discrepancy.

For example, when an injunction of the sharia is repealed (mansukh) or changed, it seems that it has reversed. However, when we consider that the times and the contexts are different, then that contradiction or discrepancy vanishes.

Exalted Allah has been wise and helpful in this [discrepancy in the author’s description]! Therefore, do not remain a doubter.

Almighty Allah! Bless our leader Muhammad and his progeny and give them peace and blessings!

in noskheh keh mabda’ va maad benam

ze anfas-i nafis-i hazrat-i FaKHR-i kiram

chun

in noskheh keh mabda’ va maad benam

ze anfas-i nafis-i hazrat-i FaKHR-i kiram

chun

Bibliography

1.                  Hazrat Imam-i Rabbani Mujaddid va Munawwir Alfithani Sirhindi quddisa sirruh, Mabda’ va Maad, (Istanbul: Hakikat Kitabevi, 1994)

Terms

lamakani non-spatial

makani spatial

hal state

mabda’ the origin

f-w-q to surpass, excel, overtop

nisbat transmission

uruj ascent

qutb pole

fardiyat solitariness

fayd energy change effusuin to energy, solitar to solitary

ruhani

bozorg

mushahida

nisbat transmission

surat

haqiqat

hidayat

rushd

aziz

???

ta=till, until, so that,

ban= by that with that

rafa = remove /here elevation

sh-b-h-tamarbuta= doubt

mis= copper

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

[1] lit., people of their own kind, abna-i jins-i khod

[2] This line is an interpretive translation

[3] This paragraph is interpretive

[4] This paragraph is an interpretive translation.

[5] This hadith appears frequently in the writings of the sufi masters

[6] Refers to the sacred hadith “???????????”, Foruzanfar, p. 181

[7] A similar hadith is in the Musnad of Ibn Hanbal Vol. II, p. 293. giordani

[8] La salata illa bi-fatihati’l kitab (Bukhari, Muslim)

[9] mujatahid imams refers to the four leaders of fiqh, the science of Islamic jurisprudence i.e. Abu Hanifa, Shafi`i, Malik, Ahmad ibn Hanbal. They founded four eponymous schools of law.

[10] Ahmad Sirhindi, Mabda va Ma’ad, Minha 28, Persian original, p. 49 l. 8

[11] Refers to the Hadith report, “The rich will enter paradise five-hundred years after the poor.” This is reason this rich companion, Abdur Rahman ibn Auf, is reaching paradise late.

[12] refers to the hadith narrated by companion Abu Huraira (ra), “I learned two types of knowledge from the Prophet (slm). The first type is what I’ve told you. But if I try to tell you the second type, I’d be decapitated.” [Bukhari] look at Hazrat Mujaddid and His Critics, p.79

Until today, no master (khalifa) of this exalted tradition (bozorg khandan) has ever explained it meaning. Nobody has even given a clue to it. Then how can such a lowly and insignificant man like me dares to explain it?

In reality, Allah (SWT) through His grace (fadl and karam) has explained this deep mystery to me and taught me its true meaning (haqiqat) to his good-pleasure. That's why I have decided to write down the description of this precious pearl. After performing special prayers seeking divine wellguidedness (istikhara), I am writing it. My supplication to Allah is that He protects me from errors and grants me the ability to describe it correctly.

Should astof be left side

IA: my made-up words commandingness ,prohibitingness leave them as they are they are Chittickians!